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  • Management of the Uncommon Bladder Cancers: A Single-Center Experience over 10 Years
    Background. Under the name of uncommon bladder cancers are gathered rare histological entities which represent less than 5% of bladder tumors. There is not a clear and consensual therapeutic management for these entities. Purpose. To review a single-institution 10-year experience with rare form of bladder cancers detailing the diagnosis, treatment, and patient outcome. Materials and Methods. We performed a retrospective review of 27 medical records of rare bladder cancer form treated at our center between February 2006 and February 2015. The clinicopathologic features are reported with emphasis on treatment and survival. Results. Mean patient age was 65.5 ± 20 yr and 70% of patients were males. Smoking background was found in 16 cases, chronic bladder irritation factors were found in 12 cases, and past urinary tract infection was found in 11 cases. The main symptom was total hematuria (93%) causing an anemia in 16 cases. The two mean histological forms were epidermoid carcinoma (37%) and adenocarcinoma (22%). 26% of patients were found to have extended invasive tumors (T4) at diagnosis. Metastatic disease was confirmed in 8 cases. Our patients were managed by a wide range of therapeutic modalities as total cystectomy with bilateral lymph node dissection (63%), palliative chemotherapy (30%), or concomitant radiochemotherapy (7%). 55.6% of patients were alive one year after diagnosis. Epidermoid carcinoma has the best prognosis followed by leiomyosarcoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma. Neuroendocrine carcinoma has the worst outcome. The overall 5-year survival rate is 33.3%. Conclusion. The rarity and small size of these tumors justify the absence of clear and consensual therapeutic management. No role of total cystectomy concerning the conclusions could be drawn but elements suggest this may be the treatment of choice. The highly aggressive nature of those lesions justifies an aggressive and fast therapy when feasible which gives the best outcomes.
  • Congenital Bladder and Urethral Agenesis: Two Case Reports and Management
    Background. Agenesis of the bladder and urethra is a rare congenital anomaly, with a very few living cases reported in the literature so far. Case Presentation. We are reporting two female patients (3 and 6 years old) with bladder and urethral agenesis who presented with urinary incontinence. In both patients, magnetic resonant imaging (MRI) revealed a case of bladder and urethral agenesis with normal ureters draining into the vagina. Patients underwent a neobladder and conduit creation surgery. The neobladder was constructed from the whole cecum and a part of the ascending colon, followed by an anastomose of the ureters into the neobladder in a nonrefluxing fashion; the appendix was used simultaneously as a continent catheterizable conduit. The two patients attained urinary continence postoperatively. Conclusion. We reported two cases of bladder agenesis, and for the first time, we have performed neobladder creation surgery using the cecum and ascending colon. One-year follow-up did not reveal any complications.
  • Utilization of Radiographic Imaging for Infant Hydronephrosis over the First 12 Months of Life
    Purpose. The workup and surveillance strategies for infant hydronephrosis (HN) vary, although this could be due to grade-dependent differences in imaging intensity. We aimed to describe the frequency of imaging studies for HN within the first year of life, stratified by initial HN grade, within a large regional healthcare system. Study Design and Data Source. Retrospective cohort using Intermountain Healthcare Data Warehouse. Inclusion criteria: (1) birth between 1/1/2005 and 12/31/2013, (2) CPT code for HN, and (3) ultrasound (U/S) confirmed HN within four months of birth. Data Collection. Grade of HN on initial postnatal U/S; number of HN-associated radiologic studies (renal U/Ss, voiding cystourethrograms (VCUGs), and diuretic renal scans); demographic and medical variables. Primary Outcome. Sum of radiologic studies within the first year of life or prior to pyeloplasty. Statistical Analysis. Multivariate poisson regression to analyze association between the primary outcome and the initial HN grade. Results. Of 1,380 subjects (993 males and 387 females), 990 (72%), 230 (17%), and 160 (12%) had mild, moderate, and severe HN, respectively. Compared with those with mild HN, patients with moderate (RR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.42–1.73) and severe (RR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.88–2.32) HN had a significantly higher rate of imaging use over 12 months (or prior to surgery) after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions. In a large regional healthcare system, imaging use for HN is proportional to its initial grade. This suggests that within our system, clinicians treating this condition are using a risk-stratified approach to imaging.
  • Histological Inflammation in Human Ureter either Healthy or Fitted with Double-Pigtail Stent or a Thin 0.3 F Suture Thread: A Preliminary Study
    Background. Ureteral stent intolerance reduces patients’ quality of life. It has been suggested that changes in the shape of stents could decrease discomfort. In previous studies, the innovative pigtail-suture stent (i.e., JFil® or MiniJFil®) with a thin 0.3 F suture thread significantly decreased stent-related symptoms. Fortuitously, a dilation of the ureter containing the sutures was discovered. In addition, no inflammation was seen on the ureter wall around the suture in endoscopy. In this preliminary study, we assessed ureteral inflammation in the human ureter when it was healthy or when fitted with a double-pigtail stent or a thread. Materials and Methods. After consent and inclusion of patients in the protocol, fifteen segments of ureters were collected during cystectomy procedures for bladder tumors. Ureteral inflammation was assessed on the histological section stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Histological grading (cumulative range of 0 to 6) assessing inflammation was performed on the ureter section for mucosa inflammation and inflammation in the muscle layer. Results. A marked ureteral inflammatory reaction was observed in all cases of ureters fitted with a double-pigtail stent with a mean inflammation score of 4.8 ± 0.4. The ureter fitted with the thin suture thread showed inflammation in only one case with a mean inflammation score of 1.8 ± 1.3 .Conclusion. Although the study was limited by the small number of patients, it confirmed that the double-pigtail stent induced ureteral inflammation in all cases and the thin 0.3 F suture thread caused less ureteral inflammation than the double-pigtail stent. The concept of material reduction within the urinary tract seems necessary in order to decrease mucosal irritation. The JFil® or the MiniJFil® thread could meet this requirement.
  • Removal of the Tumor Thrombus from the Right Atrium without Extracorporeal Circulation: Emphasis on the Displacement of the Tumor Apex
    Objectives. To assess the outcomes of cavoatrial tumor thrombus removal using the liver transplantation technique for thrombectomy, a retrospective study was conducted. Materials and Methods. Five patients with atrial tumor thrombi who underwent piggy-back mobilization of the liver, surgical access to the right atrium from the abdominal cavity, and external manual repositioning of the thrombus apex below the diaphragm (milking maneuver) were included into the study. Extracorporeal circulation was used in none of the cases. The average length of the atrial component of the tumor was 20.0 ± 11.7 mm (10 to 35 mm), and the width was 14.8 ± 8.5 mm (10 to 30 mm). In this work, the features of patients and surgical interventions as well as perioperative complications and mortality were analyzed. Results. External manual repositioning of the tumor thrombus apex below the diaphragm was successfully performed in all patients. Tumor thrombi with the length of the atrial part up to 1.5 cm were removed through the extrapericardial approach. For evacuation of the thrombi with the large atrial part (3.0 cm or more), a transpericardial surgical approach was required. Specific complications associated with the access to the right atrium from the abdominal cavity (paresis of the right phrenic nerve, pneumothorax, and mediastinitis) were not detected in any case. The average clamping time of the supradiaphragmatic inferior vena cava (IVC) was 6.3 ± 4.6 min. The volume of intraoperative blood loss varied from 2500 to 5600 ml (an average of 3675 ± 1398.5 ml). Conclusion. Our work represents the initial experience in the liver transplantation technique for thrombectomy in distinct and well-selected patients with atrial tumor thrombi. The effectiveness of this approach needs further study. The video presentation of our research took place in March 2019 at the 34th Annual EAU Congress in Barcelona.
  • Analysis of Learning Curve in Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Performed by a Surgeon
    This study aimed to report the learning curve in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) performed by one surgeon who is experienced in laparoscopic prostatectomies. The records of 145 RARP cases performed between 2015 and 2017 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were divided into three groups: group 1 comprised the first 49 cases, group 2 comprised 50–88 cases, and the rest of the cases were assigned to group 3. Continence was defined as the necessity to use at least one pad during a day. Additionally, erectile function recovery was defined as having erection sufficient for sexual intercourse regardless of using a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor. Continence and erectile function recovery were assessed during interviews at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. First, all procedures were successfully performed without conversions or blood transfusions. The median follow-up period was 22 months. Moreover, the median skin-to-skin operative time (OT) was 220 minutes. The median blood loss was 150 ml, and the mean hospital stay was 8.9 ± 3.87 days. The median prostate volume was 36 cm³. The overall positive surgical margin rate was 13.1%. Overall, 38 (26.2%) postoperative complications were observed, and 17.9% of them were graded as minor. Anastomotic leakage decreased significantly from group 1 to group 3 (26.5% and 7%, respectively). The continence recovery (0-1 pad) rates were 60.6%, 75.7%, and 84.9% at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery, respectively. Subsequently, the erectile function recovery rates were 50.9% and 65.4% at 6 and 12 months after surgery, respectively. In conclusion, there are several types of learning curves for RARP. First, the shallowest learning curve was observed for the OT. Regarding the analysis of “advanced learning curve,” demonstrating the improvement of OT and blood loss is considered insufficient. Therefore, additional oncological and functional results that require a longer period of investigation are required.
  • Critical Assessment of Single-Use Ureteroscopes in an In Vivo Porcine Model
    Introduction and Objectives. In recent years, there has been increasing utilization of single-use ureteroscopes albeit with few studies comparing the performance characteristics between these devices. We compared two commonly utilized single-use ureteroscopes in a porcine model. Methods. A female pig was placed under general anesthesia and positioned supine, and retrograde access to the renal collecting system was obtained. The LithoVue (Boston Scientific) and Uscope (Pusen Medical) were evaluated by three experienced surgeons, and each surgeon started with a new scope. The following parameters were compared between each ureteroscope: time for navigation to upper and lower pole calyces with and without implements (1.9 F basket, 200 μm laser fiber, and 365 μm laser fiber for upper only) in the working channel and subjective evaluations of maneuverability, irrigant flow through the scope, lever force, ergonomics, and scope optics. Results. Navigation to the lower pole calyx was significantly faster with LithoVue compared to Uscope when the working channel was empty (24.3 vs. 49.4 seconds, ) and with a 200 μm fiber (63.6 vs. 94.4 seconds, ), but not with the 1.9 F basket. Navigation to the upper pole calyx was similar for all categories except faster with LithoVue containing the 365 μm fiber (67.1 vs. 99.7 seconds, ). Subjective assessments of scope maneuverability to upper and lower pole calyces when the scope was empty and with implements favored LithoVue in all categories, as did assessments of irrigant flow, illumination, image quality, and field of view. Both scopes had similar scores of lever force and ergonomics. Conclusions. In an in vivo porcine model, the type of single-use ureteroscope employed affected the navigation times and subjective assessments of maneuverability and visualization. In all cases, LithoVue provided either equivalent or superior metrics than Uscope. Further clinical studies are necessary to determine the implications of these findings.
  • Microbiome within Primary Tumor Tissue from Renal Cell Carcinoma May Be Associated with PD-L1 Expression of the Venous Tumor Thrombus
    Objective. To perform a proof of concept microbiome evaluation and PD-L1 expression profiling in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (cc-RCC) with associated tumor thrombus (TT). Methods. After IRB approval, six patients underwent radical nephrectomy (RN) with venous tumor thrombectomy (VTT). We collected fresh tissue specimens from normal adjacent, tumor, and thrombus tissues. We utilized RNA sequencing to obtain PD-L1 expression profiles and perform microbiome analysis. Statistical assessment was performed using Student’s t-test, chi-square, and spearman rank correlations using SPSS v25. Results. We noted the tumor thrombus to be mostly devoid of diverse microbiota. A large proportion of Staphylococcus epidermidus was detected and unknown if this is a surgical or postsurgical contaminant; however, it was noted more in the thrombus than other tissues. Microbiome diversity profiles were most abundant in the primary tumor compared to the thrombus or normal adjacent tissue. Differential expression of PD-L1 was examined in the tumor thrombus to the normal background tissue and noted three of the six subjects had a threshold above 2-fold. These three similar subjects had foreign microbiota that are typical residents of the oral microbiome. Conclusion. Renal tumors have more diverse microbiomes than normal adjacent tissue. Identification of resident oral microbiome profiles in clear-cell renal cancer with tumor thrombus provides a potential biomarker for thrombus response to PD-L1 inhibition.
  • Efficacy of Tamsulosin plus Tadalafil versus Tamsulosin as Medical Expulsive Therapy for Lower Ureteric Stones: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    Introduction. Urolithiasis is one of the common disorder with which about 1/5th is found in the ureter, of which 2/3rd is seen in the lower ureter. Medical expulsive therapy is one of the routine modalities of treatment which uses various drugs acting on the ureter smooth muscle by different mechanism. We aim to compare the efficacy of combination vs. single drug. Methods. This randomized controlled trial was done in 176 consecutive patients over a period of six months (March 2019 to August 2019) in Department of Urology and Kidney Transplant Surgery, Tribhuvan University Teaching. Participants were divided into two groups (Group A, tamsulosin plus tadalafil, and Group B, tamsulosin) from computer-generated random numbers. Therapy was continued for a maximum of 3 weeks. Stone expulsion rate, time to stone expulsion, analgesic use, number of colic and emergency room visits for pain, early intervention, and adverse effects of drugs were recorded. Results. Among 176 patients who were enrolled in study, 7 were lost to follow-up, and 5 people required immediate intervention. There was a significant higher stone passage rate in group A than group B (64 vs. 50; ) and shorter expulsion time (1.66 vs. 2.32 weeks ) and less number of emergency room visits and colic episodes. No significant side effects were noted during study. Conclusion. Tamsulosin plus Tadalafil is more effective than tamsulosin with early passage of stone and decreased number of colic episodes and emergency visits without significant side effects for lower ureteric calculi of 5 mm to 10 mm.
  • Prospective Multicenter Open-Label One-Arm Trial Investigating a Pumpkin Seed, Isoflavonoids, and Cranberry Mix in Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Pilot Study
    Phytotherapy for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) due to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is progressively demanded by patients and trusted by physicians. The aim was to assess the efficacy of a mix of pumpkin seed extract, soy germ isoflavonoids, and cranberry (Novex®) in the management of mild to moderate LUTS in BPH patients. Male patients aged ≥40 years, who had had mild to moderate LUTS for >6 months at screening, with no previous therapy or who are still symptomatic despite current use of alpha-blockers, were recruited. Exclusion criteria were an IPSS >19 and an age >80 years. The mixed compound was administered orally, daily, for 3 months. Patients were evaluated by means of IPSS, urological quality of life (uQoL) index, and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) at 3 visits: baseline (visit 1), 30 days (visit 2), and 90 days after treatment (visit 3). Among 163 screened patients, 128 patients (61.8 ± 9.9 years) were recruited. IPSS improved from 15 (Q1 : 12–Q3 : 17) in visit 1, to 11 (Q1 : 8–Q3 : 14) in visit 2, and to 9 (Q1 : 6–Q3 : 12) in visit 3 (). uQoL improved from 4 (3–4) in visit 1, to 3 (2–3) in visit 2, and to 2 (1–2) in visit 3 (). The patients had an IIEF-5 score of 15 (12–18.7) in visit 1, 15 (12–18) in visit 2, and 17 (13–19) in visit 3 ( visits 1 vs. 2, visits 2 vs. 3, and visits 1 vs. 3). Treating mild to moderate LUTS/BPH patients with Novex® might therefore relieve symptoms, improve the quality of life, and have a mild beneficial effect on erectile function.
  • Traumatic Bladder Ruptures: A Ten-Year Review at a Level 1 Trauma Center
    Bladder rupture occurs in only 1.6% of blunt abdominopelvic trauma cases. Although rare, bladder rupture can result in significant morbidity if undiagnosed or inappropriately managed. AUA Urotrauma Guidelines suggest that urethral catheter drainage is a standard of care for both extraperitoneal and intraperitoneal bladder rupture regardless of the need for surgical repair. However, no specific guidance is given regarding the length of catheterization. The present study seeks to summarize contemporary management of bladder trauma at our tertiary care center, assess the impact of length of catheterization on bladder injuries and complications, and develop a protocol for management of bladder injuries from time of injury to catheter removal. A retrospective review was performed on 34,413 blunt trauma cases to identify traumatic bladder ruptures over the past 10 years (January 2008–January 2018) at our tertiary care facility. Patient data were collected including age, gender, BMI, mechanism of injury, and type of injury. The primary treatment modality (surgical repair vs. catheter drainage only), length of catheterization, and post-injury complications were also assessed. Review of our institutional trauma database identified 44 patients with bladder trauma. Mean age was 41 years, mean BMI was 24.8 kg/m2, 95% were Caucasian, and 55% were female. Motor vehicle collision (MVC) was the most common mechanism, representing 45% of total injuries. Other mechanisms included falls (20%) and all-terrain vehicle (ATV) accidents (13.6%). 31 patients had extraperitoneal injury, and 13 were intraperitoneal. Pelvic fractures were present in 93%, and 39% had additional solid organ injuries. Formal cystogram was performed in 59% on presentation, and mean time to cystogram was 4 hours. Gross hematuria was noted in 95% of cases. Operative management was performed for all intraperitoneal injuries and 35.5% of extraperitoneal cases. Bladder closure in operative cases was typically performed in 2 layers with absorbable suture in a running fashion. The intraperitoneal and extraperitoneal injuries managed operatively were compared, and length of catheterization (28 d vs. 22 d, ), time from injury to normal fluorocystogram (19.8 d vs. 20.7 d, ), and time from injury to repair (4.3 vs. 60.5 h, ) were not statistically different between cohorts. Patients whose catheter remained in place for greater than 14 days had prolonged time to initial cystogram (26.6 d vs. 11.5 d) compared with those whose foley catheter was removed within 14 days. The complication rate was 21% for catheters left more than 14 days while patients whose catheter remained less than 14 days experienced no complications. The present study provides a 10-year retrospective review characterizing the presentation, management, and follow-up of bladder trauma patients at our level 1 trauma center. Based on our findings, we have developed an institutional protocol which now includes recommendations regarding length of catheterization after traumatic bladder rupture. By providing specific guidelines for initial follow-up cystogram and foley removal, we hope to decrease patient morbidity from prolonged catheterization. Further study will seek to allow multidisciplinary trauma teams to standardize management, streamline care, and minimize complications for patients presenting with traumatic bladder injuries.
  • Nephrolithiasis and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Case-Control Study Evaluating Testosterone and Urinary Stone Metabolic Panels
    Introduction. Both elevated testosterone and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have been speculated as possible risk factors for kidney stone formation; however, the details of this potential relationship with regards to 24-hour urine metabolic panels and stone composition have not previously been characterized. Methods. A total of 74 PCOS patients were retrospectively identified and matched with a cohort of female stone formers at a 3 : 1 ratio (by age and BMI). All patients had 24-hour urinary metabolic panels and stone compositions. These groups were compared using Pearson chi-square and Student t-tests. Additionally, the PCOS group was differentiated based on free testosterone using multivariate analysis. Results. The case-control cohort showed that PCOS patients had significantly lower sodium excretion and hypernatriuria rates (28.9% vs 50.9%, ). The PCOS-testosterone cohort demonstrated that high testosterone patients had significantly higher citrate values and significantly lower odds of hypocitraturia (36.7% vs 54.2%, OR = 0.2, ). The high testosterone group also had higher sodium excretion with significantly higher odds of having hypernatriuria (40.0% vs 13.6%, OR = 13.3, ). No significant patterns were revealed based on stone composition analysis. Conclusions. Compared to healthy stone formers, PCOS patients did not demonstrate significant differences in 24-hour urine and stone composition values. Elevated free testosterone in PCOS patients has a significant association with higher urinary citrate and sodium values: findings that in and of themselves do not confirm the hypothesized increased risk of stone formation. This patient cohort may provide deeper insight into the interplay between androgens and stone formation; however, further study is needed to fully characterize the possible relationship between PCOS and stone formation.
  • Histoprotective Effect of Essential Oil from Citrus aurantifolia in Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Rat
    Background. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common urological disorder reported among ageing men. Objective. The study assessed histoprotective effect of lime essential oil (LEO) in a rat model of testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and evaluated its ability to reverse testosterone-mediated changes in the testis, kidney, and liver. Materials and Methods. Adult Sprague Dawley (aged 12 weeks, 240–390 g) male rats were intramuscularly injected with testosterone enanthate (TE) (10 mg/kg) reconstituted in olive oil for ten days to establish benign prostatic hyperplasia (serum PSA level ≥ 1.24 ng/ml) in. After confirmation of BPH (sustained serum PSA level ≥ 1.24 ng/ml), rats in all groups (LEO: 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, po, n = 6; finasteride: 15 mg/kg, po, n = 6) except model (BPH without treatment) and sham (no BPH and no treatment) groups were treated for 21 days. At the end of treatment, rats were anesthetised and blood was collected via cardiac puncture to determine serum PSA and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels. The prostate gland, testis, kidney, and liver were harvested, weighed, histologically processed and stained with H&E. Results. LEO- and finasteride-treated groups recorded lesser mean prostatic weights relative to their model group. Baseline mean serum PSA level of LEO- and finasteride-treated groups reduced significantly () relative to model group. Serum TAC levels were also higher in LEO- and finasteride-treated groups relative to model group. LEO-treated groups had less thickened glandular epithelium, smaller acini, fewer prostatic secretions and more fibromuscular stroma relative to model group. LEO and finasteride treatment produced improved histomorphological characteristics of testis, kidney, and liver compared to model group. Conclusion. By the current results, Citrus aurantifolia LEO may possess active agents that can be explored for translational medicine against BPH.
  • Treatment of Priapism Secondary to Drugs for Erectile Dysfunction
    Priapism may present as a side effect in patients treated with medications for erectile dysfunction, in which it should be controlled in a timely manner to avoid complications. There is little information regarding the use of local measures for the treatment of this condition. This study was done with the objective to describe the management of priapism secondary to erectile dysfunction drugs in a cohort of men. Records of emergencies and adverse events were reviewed by two researchers to identify patients diagnosed with erectile dysfunction who received oral or intracavernosal drugs for their illness and presented priapism. Sociodemographic data, clinical background, and information on the duration, management, and evolution of the priapism were extracted. Priapism incidence, percentage of improvement by type of treatment subgroups, and frequency of complications were estimated. 698 patients were treated with PDE-5 inhibitors and 2,135 with intracavernosal drugs. Thirty-one patients (1.4%) reported at least one priapism event during treatment, all with intracavernosal drugs. Treatment with local measures was effective for 10 (32.2%) patients, 1 (3.2%) required terbutaline, 19 (61.2%) used intracavernosal etilefrine, and 1 (3.2%) required drainage and flushing of cavernous bodies. After the priapism episode, 3 (9.6%) patients required an increased dose of the drug in order to achieve satisfactory erection. The results suggest that in men treated for priapism secondary to the use of sexual impotence drugs, initial treatment with local measures and etilefrine can achieve detumescence, decreasing the need for invasive procedures or surgery as a first-line therapy alternative. It is necessary to carry out research studies to confirm this hypothesis.
  • Initial Evaluation of Computer-Assisted Radiologic Assessment for Renal Mass Edge Detection as an Indication of Tumor Roughness to Predict Renal Cancer Subtypes
    Objective. To develop software to assess the potential aggressiveness of an incidentally detected renal mass using images. Methods. Thirty randomly selected patients who underwent nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) had their images independently reviewed by engineers. Tumor “Roughness” was based on image algorithm of tumor topographic features visualized on computed tomography (CT) scans. Univariant and multivariant statistical analyses are utilized for analysis. Results. We investigated 30 subjects that underwent partial or radical nephrectomy. After excluding poor image-rendered images, 27 patients remained (benign cyst = 1, oncocytoma = 2, clear cell RCC = 15, papillary RCC = 7, and chromophobe RCC = 2). The mean roughness score for each mass is 1.18, 1.16, 1.27, 1.52, and 1.56 units, respectively (). Renal masses were correlated with tumor roughness (Pearson’s, ). However, tumor size itself was larger in benign tumors (). Linear regression analysis noted that the roughness score is the most influential on the model with all other demographics being equal including tumor size ().Conclusion. Using basic CT imaging software, tumor topography (“roughness”) can be quantified and correlated with histologies such as RCC subtype and could lead to determining aggressiveness of small renal masses.
  • Adult Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction and Intermittent Catheterisation in a Community Setting: Risk Factors Model for Urinary Tract Infections
    A risk factor model for urinary tract infections in patients with adult neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction performing clean intermittent catheterisation was developed; it consists of four domains, namely, (1) general (systemic) conditions in the patient, (2) individual urinary tract conditions in the patient, (3) routine aspects related to the patient, and (4) factors related to intermittent catheters per se. The conceptual model primarily concerns patients with spinal cord injury, spina bifida, multiple sclerosis, or cauda equina where intermittent catheterisation is a normal part of the bladder management. On basis of several literature searches and author consensus in case of lacking evidence, the model intends to provide an overview of the risk factors involved in urinary tract infections, with specific emphasis to describe those that in daily practice can be handled and modified by the clinician and so come to the benefit of the individual catheter user in terms of fewer urinary tract infections.
  • Prevalence of Age-Associated Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome in Indian Population
    Testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) is a gradual age-related phenomenon that occurs in a large proportion of the aging male population. This current prospective study was done with the objective to estimate the prevalence of age-associated TDS in India and its clinical profile. A total of 800 male patients aged ≥40 year were approached to participate in the study. A brief history and focused examination was done. Based on our exclusion criteria, 55 patients were excluded. Androgen deficiency in aging male (ADAM) questionnaire was administered to all remaining 745 patients. Out of these 745 patients, ADAM-positive (symptomatic TDS) patients were found to be 359 and enrolled in the study. In all ADAM-positive patients, serum testosterone levels were measured. Prevalence of symptomatic TDS in study population was found to be 48.18%. Mean total and free testosterone level of symptomatic TDS population were 3.287 ± 1.494 ng/ml (1.12–9.61) and 7.476 ± 2.902 pg/ml (2.18–21.76), respectively. Prevalence of biochemically confirmed TDS among symptomatic TDS population was 60.17%. Prevalence of TDS increases progressively with each decade of life (). Prevalence was higher in patients with diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. TDS is a real phenomenon with a prevalence of 28.99% in our study population.
  • Novel Use of Household Items in Open and Robotic Surgical Skills Resident Education
    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of surgical simulators created using household items and to determine their potential role in surgical skills training. Methods. Ten urology residents attended a surgical skills workshop and practiced using surgical simulators and models. These included a wound closure model, an open prostatectomy model, a delicate tissue simulation, a knot-tying station, and a laparoscopic simulator. After the workshop, the residents completed a 5-point Likert questionnaire. Primary outcome was face validity of the models. Secondary outcomes included usefulness as a training tool and ability to replicate the models. Results. All models were easily created and successfully represented the surgical task being simulated. Residents evaluated the activities as being useful for training purposes overall. They also felt confident that they could recreate the simulators. Conclusion. Low-fidelity training models can be used to improve surgical skills at a reasonable cost. The models will require further evaluation to determine construct validity and to determine how the improvements translate to OR performance. While high-fidelity simulators may continue to be utilized in formal surgical training, residents should be encouraged to supplement their training with innovative homemade models.
  • Chlamydia trachomatis Growth and Cytokine mRNA Response in a Prostate Cancer Cell Line
    In the present paper, we report that C. trachomatis can be efficiently propagated and affect mRNA expression for two major cytokines, relevant to tumor progression, in CWR-R1 cells, a malignant prostate cell line. CWR-R1 and McCoy cells, a classic cell line for chlamydial research, were grown and infected with C. trachomatis under similar conditions. Cell monolayers were harvested for RNA analysis and immunostaining with major outer membrane protein (MOMP) antibody at 24, 48, and 72 hours of the postinfection (hpi) period. It was shown that the infectious cycle of chlamydial pathogen in CWR-R1 cells resembles the progression of C. trachomatis infection in McCoy cells but with a few important differences. First of all, the initial stage of C. trachomatis propagation in CWR-R1 cells (24 hpi) was characterized by larger inclusion bodies and more intense, specific immunofluorescent staining of infected cells as compared with McCoy cells. Moreover, there was a corresponding increase in infective progeny formation in CWR-R1 cells along with mRNA for EUO, a crucial gene controlling the early phase of the chlamydial development cycle (24 hpi). These changes were more minimal and became statistically insignificant at a later time point in the infectious cycle (48 hpi). Altogether, these data suggest that the early phase of C. trachomatis infection in CWR-R1 cells is accompanied by more efficient propagation of the pathogen as compared with the growth of C. trachomatis in McCoy cells. Furthermore, propagation of C. trachomatis in CWR-R1 cells leads to enhanced transcription of interleukin-6 and fibroblast growth factor-2, genes encoding two important proinflammatory cytokines implicated in the molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance of prostate cancer and its ability to metastasize. The possible roles of reactive oxygen species and impaired mitochondrial oxidation in the prostate cancer cell line are discussed as factors promoting the early stages of C. trachomatis growth in CWR-R1 cells.
  • The Current Role of Osteoclast Inhibitors in Patients with Prostate Cancer
    Purpose. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies worldwide. Hormonal deprivation therapy is a well-established treatment for locally advanced or metastatic diseases but exposes patients to the risk of osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Furthermore, the tropism of the PCa cells to osseous metastases increases the incidence of skeletal-related events (SREs). Methods. A nonsystematic review of the international literature was performed in respect to the use of osteoclast inhibitors zoledronic acid (ZA) and denosumab (DEN) in PCa patients. Results. DEN and ZA have proved their efficacy in preventing osteoporosis and bone mass loss in patients treated with hormonal therapy with no proven superiority of one agent over the other. However, the effectiveness in reducing fragility fractures has been proved only for DEN so far. In metastatic-free castrate-sensitive high-risk PCa patients, ZA has not shown any efficacy in preventing osseous metastasis, and evidence is lacking in favor or against the use of DEN. The use of osteoclasts inhibitors had no evident positive effect in overall and disease-specific survival in this group of patients. In advanced castrate-refractory malignancy, DEN has shown clinical superiority over ZA in preventing new SRE but not in overall survival. Conclusion. Superiority of DEN over ZA has been proved only in advanced castrate refractory disease in terms of preventing new SRE. In the rest of the cases, the selection of either agent should be based on the clinical condition of each patient and the cost of the treatment.
  • Comparison of Oxidative Effects of Two Different Administration Form of Oxybutynin in the Potential Target Tissues
    Oxybutynin is an important anticholinergic agent that prevents uncontrolled contractions in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). However, drugs containing oxybutynin have significant side effects such as dry eyes, dry mouth, increased heart rate, constipation, blurred vision, and confusion. In recent years, new delivery methods for this agent are being searched. One of them is vaginal delivery. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of oxybutynin on oxidative parameters in the potential target tissues of the oral and vaginal delivery. Female New Zealand white rabbits () were divided into two groups: oral delivery and vaginal delivery. The animals were sacrificed 48 h after administration and nitric oxide (NOx), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs), and glutathione (GSH) levels were determined spectrophotometrically in the aorta, salivary gland, and small intestine tissue samples. Vaginal delivery significantly decreased NOx levels in all tissue samples as compared to oral delivery (). Moreover, it reduced TBARs levels in salivary gland and aorta tissue samples (). In the light on these findings, it can be said that vaginal delivery may decrease the oxidant-induced side effects of oxybutynin as compared to oral delivery.
  • Alexis Wound Retractor for Radical Cystectomy: A Safe and Effective Method for Retraction
    Surgical site infection rates remain a common postoperative problem that continues to affect patients undergoing urologic surgery. Our study seeks to evaluate the difference in surgical site infection rates in patients undergoing open radical cystectomy when comparing the Bookwalter vs. the Alexis wound retractors. After institutional review board approval, we performed a retrospective chart review from February 2010 through August 2017 of patients undergoing open radical cystectomy with urinary diversion for bladder cancer. We then stratified the groups according to whether or not the surgery was performed with the Alexis or standard Bookwalter retractor. Baseline characteristics and operative outcomes were then compared between the two groups, with the main measure being incidence of surgical site infection as defined by the CDC. We evaluated those presenting with surgical site infections within or greater than 30 postoperatively. Of 237 patients who underwent radical cystectomy with either the Alexis or Bookwalter retractor, 168 patients were eligible to be included in our analysis. There was no statistical difference noted regarding surgical site infections (SSIs) between the two groups; however, the trend was in favor of the Alexis (3%) vs. the Bookwalter (11%) at less than 30 days surgery. The Alexis wound retractor likely poses an advantage in reducing the incidence in surgical site infections in patients undergoing radical cystectomy; however, multicenter studies with larger sample sizes are suggested for further elucidation.
  • Quality of Health Information on the Internet for Prostate Cancer
    Introduction. To compare (1) the quality of prostate cancer health information on the Internet, (2) the difference in quality between websites appearing earlier or later in the search, and (3) the sources of sponsorship for each of these websites. Materials and methods. The top 150 listed websites on the Google search engine for each of the 11 search terms related to prostate cancer were analysed. Quality was assessed on whether the website conforms to the principles of the Health On the Net Foundation. Each of these websites was then reviewed to determine the main source of sponsorship. Statistical analysis was performed to determine if the proportion of HON accreditation varied among the different cohorts of listed websites and among the 11 search terms used. Results. In total, 1650 websites were analysed. Among these, 10.5% websites were HON-accredited. The proportion of HON-accredited websites for individual search terms ranged from 3.3% to 19.3%. In comparison with the search term of “Prostate cancer,” four search terms had statistically significant odds ratio of the rate of HON accreditation. Websites 51–150 were statistically less likely to have HON accreditation than websites 1–50. The top three website sponsors were journal/universities (28.8%), commercial (28.1%), and physician/surgeon (26.9%). Conclusions. The lack of validated and unbiased websites for prostate cancer is concerning especially with increasing use of the Internet for health information. Websites sponsored or managed by the government and national departments were most likely to provide impartial health information for prostate cancer. We need to help our patients identify valid and unbiased online health resources.
  • Outcomes from the Introduction of a Combined Urology Outpatient Clinic
    Background. A combined urology clinic staffed by four consultants and four non‐consultant hospital doctors (NCHDs) was introduced in our institution in October 2015. This clinic is supported by a pre‐clinic radiology meeting and a synchronous urology clinical nurse specialist (CNS) clinic with protected uroflow/trial of void slots. Herein, we report on the outcomes of this clinic in comparison with the standard format of urology outpatient review. Methods. We carried out a retrospective review of clinic attendances from May to July 2016. We recorded the number of new and return attendances, which team members had reviewed the patient and patient outcomes. We also calculated the waiting times for new patients to be reviewed in the outpatient clinic. Results. The combined urology clinic reviewed an average of 12 new and 46 return patients per clinic. The standard urology clinic reviewed an average of 8 new and 23 return patients per clinic. 54% of patients were seen by a consultant in the combined urology clinic, and 20% of patients were seen by a consultant in the standard urology clinic. The rate of patient discharge for new patients was 14.8% in the combined clinic compared to 5.9% in the standard clinic. Overall patient outcomes are outlined in the table. The waiting time for review of new patients in the combined clinic was reduced by 39% from 144 days to 89 days over a one-year period. Conclusions. The introduction of a combined urology outpatient clinic with the support of pre‐clinic radiology meeting and synchronous urology CNS clinic facilitates patient discharge.
  • The Benefits of Using a Small Caliber Ureteroscope in Evaluation and Management of Urethral Stricture
    Introduction and Objective. The proper evaluation of urethral strictures is an essential part of the surgical planning in urethral reconstruction. The proper evaluation of the stricture can be challenging in certain situations, especially when the meatus is involved. We propose that the use of a small caliber ureteroscope (4.5 Fr and 6.5 Fr) can offer additional help and use for the surgical planning in urethroplasty. Methods. We prospectively collected data on 76 patients who underwent urethroplasties in Kulkarni Reconstructive Urology Center, Pune, India and Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Center, Thunder Bay, Canada. Patients had retrograde and micturition urethrograms performed preoperatively. The stricture was assessed visually using a 6.5 Fr ureteroscope. If the stricture was smaller than 6.5 Fr, we attempted using the 4.5 Fr ureteroscope. In nonobliterated strictures, we attempted bypassing the stricture making sure not to dilate the stricture. A glide wire would be passed to the bladder under vision. Stricture length, tissue quality, presence of other proximal strictures, false passages, and bladder tumors or stones would be assessed visually. If the penile stricture was near obliterative (smaller than 4.5 Fr caliber), a two-staged procedure is elected to be performed. For proximal bulbar strictures, if the urethral caliber is less than 4.5 Fr and the stricture length is less than 1 cm, we perform a nontransecting anastomotic urethroplasty (NTAU). If the stricture length is >1 cm, we perform a double-face augmented urethroplasty (DFAU). If the urethral caliber is >4.5 Fr and particularly those who are sexually active, ventral inlay with buccal mucosal grafts (BMGs) is performed. In mid to distal bulbar strictures, if the urethral caliber is >4.5 Fr, our procedure of choice is dorsal onlay with BMG. For those with urethral caliber <4.5 Fr and a stricture less than 1 cm, we perform a NTAU. For strictures longer than 1 cm, we perform a DFAU. With the exception of trauma, we very rarely transect the urethra. For panurethral strictures, we almost exclusively perform Kulkarni one-sided dissection. Results. Urethroscopy was performed in 76 patients who presented for urethroplasty from July 2014 to September 2014 (in Pune) and between April 2016 and September 2017 (in Thunder Bay). Bypassing the stricture was achieved in 68 patients (89%) while it was unsuccessful in 8 patients (11%). In all unsuccessful urethroscopies, the stricture was near obliterative <4.5 Fr. Our surgical planning changed in (13) 17% of the cases. Out of 43 bulbar strictures, the decision was changed in (9) 21% where we performed 4 DFAU, 3 AAU (augmented anastomotic urethroplasty), and 2 EAU (end anastomotic urethroplasty). In 13 penile strictures, we opted for staged urethroplasty including 3 Johansons and 1 first-stage Asopa in 30.7%. In 20 panurethral urethroplasties, 1 patient (5%) had a urethral stone found in a proximal portion of the bulbar urethra distal to a stricture ring that was removed using an endoscopic grasper. Conclusion. The use of the small caliber ureteroscope can help in evaluation of the stricture caliber, length, and tissue quality. The scope can also aid in placing a guide wire, evaluating the posterior urethra, and screening for urethral or bladder stones. It can also improve the preoperative patient counselling and avoid unwanted surprises.
  • Analysis of the Learning Curve of Surgeons without Previous Experience in Laparoscopy to Perform Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy
    Objective. To assess the learning curve in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) performed by surgeons without previous experience in laparoscopic prostatectomy. Materials and Methods. We analyzed 119 patients submitted to RARP performed by two surgeons without previous experience in laparoscopic prostatectomy, with emphasis on the relevant outcomes such as continence, erectile function, and oncologic control with a minimum follow-up of 24 months. We used Fisher’s exact test and the chi-square test to investigate the existence of a relationship between the variables and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to verify possible statistically significant differences between groups, at the 5% level. Results. The patients’ age varied from 41 to 72 years (mean = 61.09), with 68 (57.14%) cases having intermediate or high risk. There was a consistent decline in operative time. Of the 119 patients, 80.67% were continent 6 months after surgery and 89.07% 12 months afterward, while 35.29% were potent 6 months after surgery and 60.50% 12 months following surgery. Twelve months after surgery, the trifecta outcome rate was 51.26% and the pentafecta rate was 31.09%. There was progressive postoperative improvement and maintenance of continence and sexual potency until the last patient was operated in our sample. Conclusions. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy does not require previous experience in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, but the learning curve is not short to achieve the plateau.
  • Undescended Testes and Laparoscopy: Experience from the Developing World
    Background. Cryptorchidism or undescended testes is the most common disorder of the male endocrine glands in children. With the advancements in laparoscopic techniques and instruments, laparoscopic orchidopexy has become the standard procedure in the management of nonpalpable undescended testes. Aim. To evaluate and determine the therapeutic role, sensitivity, and specificity of laparoscopy in localizing nonpalpable testes and the mean operative time, the conversion rate (and reasons thereof), postoperative wound infection, postoperative stay, and time taken for return to daily activities following laparoscopic orchidopexy or orchidectomy. Materials and Methods. This was a prospective study carried out in the Postgraduate Department of Surgery, Government Medical College, Srinagar, J&K, India, from May 2008 to August 2011. All patients who presented to the outpatient department with complaints of absent testes were examined, and the ones with nonpalpable testes were included in the study. Results. The mean operative time for bilateral and unilateral nonpalpable testis was 102.76 and 53.67 minutes, respectively. Minor postoperative wound infections were noted in 4 of our patients. Mean duration of hospital stay was 14.23 hrs for unilateral cases and 16.27 hrs for bilateral cases. Patients who underwent laparoscopic orchidopexy resumed their normal activities within 4 ± 1 days. Conclusion. Laparoscopy clearly demonstrates the anatomy and provides visual information upon which a definitive decision can be made for further management of the undescended nonpalpable testis.
  • The Modified Gil-Vernet Antireflux Surgery: A Successful Technique for High-Grade Vesicoureteral Reflux Correction in Children—Long-Term Follow-Up
    Introduction. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common urologic anomaly in children. Many techniques have been offered to manage this condition, in which one of them is modified Gil-Vernet antireflux surgery. The study fullfiled to evaluate the efficacy and safety of modified Gil-Vernet antireflux surgery in correction of high-grade VUR. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study in which we evaluated efficacy, safety, and complications of modified Gil-Vernet antireflux surgery as a choice procedure for high-grade reflux in all patients who underwent it since 2000 to 2016 at 2 hospitals of Kermanshah University of medical sciences that all of them were done by one surgeon. Results. 183 patients with 290 high-grade refluxing units (grade IV or V) were reviewed. 182 refluxing units were grade IV, and 108 units were grade V. There were 76 (41.54%) patients with unilateral and 107 (58.46%) patients with bilateral VUR. Reflux in high-grade group corrected completely in 278 (95.86%) refluxing units and 175 patients (95.62%). Conclusions. Our results are remarkable and compatible with other techniques’ results. This simple and safe technique can correct bilateral VURs simultaneously; thus, it is rational to be considered for high-grade VUR correction. According to our results, we suggest the modified Gil-Vernet antireflux procedure for high-grade VUR correction as a simple, safe, and successful technique. This trial is registered with 67145/86/1233.
  • Germ Cell Tumors: Updates on Epidemiology, Biology, and Treatment Considerations
  • Efficacy of Transdermal Oxybutynin in the Treatment of Overactive Bladder Syndrome: Does It Make Sense Using It in 2017?
    Objectives. Evaluation of changes in symptoms among patients with overactive bladder syndrome treated with transdermal oxybutynin and tolerability after 12 months of follow-up. Methods. This was a multicenter, retrospective, single-cohort, observational study. Changes in symptoms were evaluated primarily with a 3-day voiding diary. Results were compared to baseline. Subgroup analyses were performed in patients previously treated for OAB or not and aged < 65 years versus ≥65 years. Results. Clinical records of 105 patients were examined; 92.4% were women. At 12 months, 58 patients continued to receive transdermal oxybutynin. Changes in symptoms according to the voiding diary were evaluated in 47 patients. Significant improvements from baseline were observed in urinary frequency (−2.6 voids/24 hours (95% CI: −3.5; −1.8), ); daily number of urgent episodes (−4.7 episodes/day (95% CI: −6.1; −3.6), ); and urge incontinence (−1.9 episodes/day (95% CI: −2.9; −1.3), ). No statistically significant differences were found in subgroup analyses. In total, 38.1% of patients had adverse events, primarily in the application site (27.6%). No severe systemic adverse events occurred. Only 6 patients (5.7%) reported dry mouth. Conclusions. Improved symptoms and good tolerability observed after 1 year of treatment with transdermal oxybutynin shows that it currently has a place in the treatment of OAB patients.


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