Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Hematospermia: Does It Increase Unnecessary Prostate Biopsy? Introduction: Hematospermia is an uncommon presentation of prostate cancer. Following the introduction of MRI for patients with hematospermia we evaluated its use and effect on prostate biopsy and cancer detection rates. Materials and Methods: Analysis of patients attending our outpatient department over 2 years was undertaken. Diagnostic workup included digital rectal examination and PSA. Those with abnormal findings or persisting symptoms were offered prostate biopsy. In the second year MRI became available for patients with hematospermia. Abnormal MRI or persisting symptoms were offered biopsy. We compared the frequency of prostate biopsy and cancer detection in patients undergoing MRI and those not having imaging. Results: Forty-seven patients were referred with hematospermia. Nineteen patients did not undergo MRI; four received prostate biopsy with one adenocarcinoma found. Twenty-four patients had an MRI with 17 biopsies undertaken. Three biopsies revealed adenocarcinoma. In the MRI group 71% of patients underwent prostate biopsy but only 21% from the non-MRI group (p < 0.05). Prostate cancer detection rate in the MRI group was 18% whilst in the non-MRI group was 25% (p = 0.7). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that caution should be used with MRI as it can lead to an increase in prostate biopsy with no change in cancer detection rate. Curr Urol 2016;10:50-54
Periurethral Gland Calculus Discovered on Workup for Dyspareunia A 55-year-old woman with a history of chronic dysuria in the absence of infection was found to have an unusual lesion below the urethral meatus. This was subsequently determined to be a periurethral gland containing a sizeable calculus. Pathologic analysis found the composition to be car bonate apatite (dahllite). Only one prior report of a female periurethral calculus has been noted in the English peer-reviewed literature. Curr Urol 2016;10:55-56
Microsurgical Subinguinal Varicocele Repair of Grade II-III Lesions Associated with Improvements of Testosterone Levels Introduction: The results of reports on the association between varicocele repair and testosterone levels were conflicting. The aim of the present study is, therefore, to investigate the impact of varicocele repair on testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: The study is based on 20 men who experienced microsurgical subinguinal varicoceles repair because of chronic dull scrotal pain. All hormonal profiles available in the clinical records were reviewed. Follow-up evaluation was done at 1 and 12 months after surgery. Men were classified into groups based on the preoperative testosterone levels: euogonadal (serum levels of testosterone > 12 nmol/l), hypogonadal men (serum levels of testosterone ≤ 12 nmol/l). Results: Microsurgical subinguinal varicocele repair was associated with a significant improvements of testosterone levels at 1 and 12 months after surgery as compared to the preoperative levels (13 nmol/l vs. 18 nmol/l, p = 0.03; 13 nmol/l vs. 15 nmol/l, p = 0.01). The same trend was seen in men who were classified as being hypogonadal (7.0 nmol/l vs. 15 nmol/l, p = 0.01; 7.0 nmol/l vs. 10 nmol/l, p = 0.02). No significant improvements in testosterone levels were observed in euogonadal men (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Microsurgical subinguinal varicocele repair was associated with a significant improvements of testosterone levels in men with grade II-III lesions and low preoperative testosterone values. Curr Urol 2016;10:45-49
Classifying Hydroceles of the Pelvis and Groin: An Overview of Etiology, Secondary Complications, Evaluation, and Management Introduction: A hydrocele is defined as the pathological buildup of serous fluid in the pelvis and groin due to various etiologies such as diseases or trauma. It has distinct clinical manifestations, particularly discomfort and psychosocial distress. Understanding the anatomy, embryology, and physiology associated with hydrocele formation is crucial to understand its onset and progression. Materials and Methods: A MEDLINE® search was conducted using keywords for the relevant classification of hydrocele and its etiology, complications, sexual barriers, evaluation, and management. Results: Appropriately classifying the hydrocele as primary, secondary communicating, secondary noncommunicating, microbe-induced, inflammatory, iatrogenic, trauma-induced, tumor-induced, canal of Nuck, congenital, and giant is important for identifying the underlying etiology. Often this process is overlooked when the classification or etiology is too rare. A focused evaluation is important for this, so that timely management can be provided. We comprehensively review the classifications, etiology, and secondary complications of hydrocele. Pitfalls of current diagnostic techniques are explored along with recommended methods for accurate diagnosis and current treatment options. Conclusion: Due to the range of classifications and etiologies of hydrocele in the pelvis and groin, a deliberate differential diagnosis is essential to avoiding imminent life-threatening complications as well as providing the appropriate treatment. Curr Urol 2016;10:1-14
Neuroendocrine Testicular Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Purpose: The purpose of this study is to study the main epidemiological, clinical, para clinical, pathological, therapeutic, and evolutionary features of patients with testicular neuroendocrine tumors (TNET). Materials and Methods: Nine case series and sixteen case reports were identified by searching PubMed database and qualified for inclusion in this study. We added the data of one case treated in the department of urology in Habib Bourguiba Hospital in Sfax, to the published cases. Results: A total of 132 cases were collected. Median age at diagnosis was 39 years old (range 10- 83 years). The most common presenting symptom was either a testicular mass or a swelling in 38.46% of cases. Carcinoid syndrome was documented in 10.60% of patients. The clinical examination revealed a palpable mass in 44.70% of patients. This mass was painless and firm in most cases. Serum tumor markers (β-gonadotrophine chorionique humaine, α-feto protein, and lactate dehydrogenase) were within normal limits in all patients except in one case. Most testicular neuroendocrine tumors (76.52%) were primary and pure. The tumors were positive for chromogranin (100%), synaptophysin (100%) and cytokeratin (93.10%). Metastases were detected at time of diagnosis in eight cases (6.06%). The main treatment was radical orchiectomy performed in 127 patients (96.21%). The 5-year overall survival rate was 78.70% and the 5-year specific survival rate was 84.30%. Conclusion: The diagnosis of testicular carcinoids is based on the immunohistochemistry study. The treatment of choice for these tumors is radical orchiectomy. Somatostatin analogues were reported to be effective in patients with carcinoid syndrome. Curr Urol 2016;10:15-25
Post Prostatectomy Vesicourethral Stenosis or Bladder Neck Contracture with Concomitant Urinary Incontinence: Our Experience and Recommendations Objectives: To present our experience in the management of bladder neck contracture with concomitant post prostatectomy incontinence and to provide our recommendations based on the updated literature. Materials and Methods: Between Jan 2010 and June 2015, 37 patients from our cohort of 341 patients with post prostatectomy incontinence were evaluated. Patient data were retrospectively collected. Patients with bladder neck contracture confirmed on flexible cystoscopy underwent subsequent rigid cystoscopy and deep endoscopic bladder neck incision (BNI). A follow up flexible cystoscopy would be performed 3 months later. If there was no recurrence of the bladder neck contracture, an artificial urethral sphincter (AUS) or a male sling was recommended. Results: The mean age of patients was 68 years (range 59-77) and the mean BMI was 31 (range 21-41) kg/m2. Twenty-five (67.7%) patients had open prostatectomy and 12 (32.4%) patients had laparoscopic prostatectomy. Fourteen patients (37.8%) underwent adjuvant radiotherapy. Twenty-four (64.8%) patients had one BNI procedure, 8 (21.6%) patients had two procedures and 5 (13.5%) patients had more than 2 procedures. Twenty-one (91.3%) patients had AUS implantation and 2 (8.7%) patients had male sling placement. Besides, 85.7% of AUS and 50% of male sling patients managed to achieve successful outcomes with a mean follow up period of 13.1 months ( range 2-33 months). Conclusion: Initial management with aggressive BNI followed by implantation of an AUS or male sling when bladder neck is stable is essential to achieve a satisfactory urinary continence outcome. Curr Urol 2016;10:32-39
Association between Serum Testosterone and PSA Levels in Middle-Aged Healthy Men from the General Population Introduction: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between serum testosterone and PSA levels in middle-aged healthy men from the general population. Materials and Methods: Based on 119 healthy men from the general population, total testosterone and PSA levels were measured. Demographic data regarding BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, smoking, and alcohol consumption were also collected. Men were classified into two groups according to testosterone levels; hypogonadal (testosterone ≤ 12 nmol/l), and eugonadal (testosterone > 12 nmol/l). Results: The mean age of the subjects was 55 years (range 46-60 years). No significant correlation between serum testosterone and PSA levels was found (p = 0.60). PSA levels were similar when compared between hypogonadal and eugonadal men (1.4 µg/l vs. 1.4 µg/l, p = 0.90).When using a multivariate analysis model adjusted for the age of the subjects, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, smoking, and alcohol consumption, a positive significant association between testosterone and PSA levels was found (β = 0.03, 95 % CI = 0.003-0.062, p = 0.03). Conclusion: Only after adjusted multivariate analysis, our results indicated that testosterone was associated with PSA levels in middle-aged healthy men. Curr Urol 2016;10:40-44
Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index is an Important Predictor of Cancer-Specific Survival, but not Recurrence-Free Survival, in Patients Undergoing Surgical Resection for Non-Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Background: The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic value of the Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI), a simplified, objective screening parameter of nutrition-related risk for various pathological conditions, on patients with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who underwent surgical resection. Patients and Methods: This study included 432 consecutive patients with non-metastatic RCC who received complete surgical resection. The prognostic outcomes of these patients were evaluated focusing on the significance of GNRI, calculated from serum albumin and the body mass index. Results: Of the 432 patients, 107 (24.8%) and 325 (75.2%) were classified into low (GNRI ≤ 98) and high (GNRI > 98) nutritional groups, respectively. Both recurrence-free survival and cancer-specific survival in the low nutritional group were significantly poorer compared with those in the high nutritional group. Despite the lack of independent significance as a predictor of recurrence-free survival, GNRI, in addition to microvascular invasion, appeared to be independently associated with cancer-specific survival on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: A low nutritional status evaluated by GNRI may have an unfavorable impact on postoperative cancer control, particularly cancer-specific survival, in non-metastatic RCC patients who received surgical resection. Curr Urol 2016;10:26-31
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