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Lo último en... Current Urology:


  • Perioperative Management of New Oral Anticoagulants in Urological Surgery
    New oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are increasingly replacing the use of warfarin in clinical practice. Their use has now also been extended to thromboprophylaxis in many orthopedic surgeries. This, in addition to an increasingly aging population with many complex comorbidities means that these medications will be ever more frequently encountered by urologists. Thus, a clear understanding of the mechanism of action of NOACs, their time to peak action and half-life is essential for the purpose of managing these patients perioperatively. This article demonstrates the patient and procedural variability that must be taken into account in the perioperative management of the anticoagulated patient. While the time to peak onset and half-life of NOACs can aid in determining the interval of interruption of anticoagulation, the risks of thrombosis and bleeding must be assessed before the decision to stop anticoagulation. This article takes into account the evidence available on NOACs in urological surgery in order to inform the perioperative management of these medications and to propose guidelines to aid in clinical decision making. In attempting this, we address the issue of the lack of high-level evidence surrounding NOACs in urological surgery given their relative novelty and the need for further research to better guide practice.
    Curr Urol 2017;11:169-174
  • Adhesive Bowel Obstruction Following Urologic Surgery: Improved Outcomes with Early Intervention
    Objective: To describe the long-term incidence of adhesive bowel obstruction following major urologic surgery, and the effect of early surgery on perioperative outcomes. Methods: The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases for California and Florida (2006-2011) were used to identify major urologic oncologic surgery patients. Subsequent adhesive bowel obstruction admissions were identified and Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analysis was performed. Early surgery for bowel obstruction was defined as occurring on-or-before hospital-day four. The effects of early surgery on postoperative minor/moderate complications (wound infection, urinary tract infection, deep vein thrombosis, and pneumonia), major complications (myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, and sepsis), death, and postoperative length-of-stay were assessed. Results: Major urologic surgery was performed on 104,400 patients, with subsequent 5-year cumulative incidence of adhesive bowel obstruction admission of 12.4% following radical cystectomy, 3.3% following kidney surgery, and 0.9% following prostatectomy. During adhesive bowel obstruction admission, 71.6% of patients were managed conservatively and 28.4% surgically. Early surgery was performed in 65.4%, with decreased rates of minor/moderate complications (18 vs. 30%, p = 0.001), major complications (10 vs. 19%, p = 0.002), and median postoperative length of stay (8 vs. 11 days, p < 0.001) compared with delayed surgery. On multivariate analysis early surgery decreased the odds of minor/ moderate complications by 43% (p = 0.01), major complications by 45% (p = 0.03), and postoperative length of stay by 3.1 days (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Adhesive bowel obstruction is a significant long-term sequela of urologic surgery, for which early surgical management may be associated with improved perioperative outcomes.
    Curr Urol 2017;11:175-181
  • Cognitive-Targeted versus Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Prostate Biopsy in Prostate Cancer Detection
    Introduction: Purpose of this study is to evaluate the detection rates of prostate cancer (PCa) for cognitive-targeted biopsy (CTB) in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided biopsy (MRGB) related to prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) score, lesion location and lesion volume. Furthermore, the addition of systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUS-GB) to CTB is evaluated. Materials and Methods: We included all patients with cancer-suspicious lesions on 3-Tesla multiparametric MRI who underwent either CTB and additional TRUS-GB or only MRGB (in-bore) in Haga Teaching Hospital between January 2013 and January 2015. Results: In total 219 patients were included: 64 CTB + TRUS-GB and 155 MRGB. In 32 (50%) men with CTB was positive for PCa. PI-RADS 3-, 4- and 5-lesions were in 17, 69 and 95% positive, respectively. In 100 men (65%) with MRGB was positive for PCa. Detection rates for PI-RADS 3-, 4- and 5-lesions were 10, 77 and 89%, respectively. CTB missed 4 (11%) low-grade tumors detected by TRUS-GB. In lesions between 0-1.5 ml PCa were significantly more often detected with MRGB than with CTB (69 vs. 39%). Conclusion: CTB has a high detection rate of PCa in men with cancer-suspicious lesions on MRI. Correction for lesion volume shows that in lesions < 1.5 ml MRGB is more accurate than CTB. The addition of TRUS-GB to CTB can safely be avoided without missing any high grade PCa.
    Curr Urol 2017;11:182-188
  • Trans-Urethral Snare of Bladder Tumor (TUSnBT) with Stone Basket Retrieval: A Novel Time-Saving Technique in the Endoscopic Management of Papillary Bladder Lesions
    Background: To assess if trans-urethral snare of bladder tumor (TUSnBT) with subsequent stone basket retrieval can be used as an effective, time-saving adjunct resection technique for papillary bladder lesions. Methods: Via standard cystoscopy, TUSnBT was performed using a standard endoscopic polypectomy snare with subsequent tumor extraction utilizing a standard stone retrieval basket, when lesions were more than 10 mm in diameter. Smaller lesions were removed with the polypectomy snare. Standard trans-urethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT) of the tumor bed was performed post TUSnBT. Histological assessment was performed and assessed separately per session. Results: In total, 18 papillary lesions, measuring between 9 and 26 mm, were resected via TUSnBT. Operative TUSnBT time, ranged between 10 and 60 seconds duration per lesion. No significant postoperative morbidity was experienced by patients within this cohort. Histo-pathological assessment revealed adequate muscle representation in 83.3 % of TUSnBT grouped sessions assessed. Conclusion: TUSnBT with stone retrieval basket retrieval is a feasible method in selected papillary bladder lesions, and may be coupled with standard TURBT resection techniques. This method is less time consuming and would prove beneficial in select lesions. It may also be beneficial to assist with reducing the resection time or inadvertent bladder perforation encountered during the conventional TURBT.
    Curr Urol 2017;11:189-195
  • Prostate Cancer Detection with Multiparametric MRI: A Comparison of 1 M-Concentration Gadobutrol with 0.5 M-Concentration Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents
    Introduction: Gadobutrol (Gd-DO3A-butrol) (Gadovist®) is a macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) formulated at 1.0 mmol Gd/ml. Gadobutrol's higher concentration compared to other contrast agents (0.5 mmol Gd/ml) is associated with higher T1 relaxivity. We examined whether gadobutrol increases the accuracy of prostate cancer detection using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Materials and Methods: Multiparametric MRI was performed in 379 patients: 94 patients received 1 M gadobutrol while 285 randomly received equivalent doses of 0.5 M gadoterate meglumine or gadopentetate dimeglumine. MRI images were retrospectively and blindly assessed for the presence of cancer by comparing them with prostate biopsy findings. Results: The specificity and accuracy were significantly higher with 1 M gadobutrol than 0.5 M of the other contrast agents. There were no significant differences in the sensitivity, or positive and negative predictive values. Conclusion: Multiparametric MRI using 1 M gadobutrol may improve the accuracy of prostate cancer detection.
    Curr Urol 2017;11:201-205
  • Assessing the Safety and Efficacy of the ClearRing™ Implant for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in a Canine Model
    Background: Transurethral resection of the prostate is the most common procedure for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although effective, transurethral resection of the prostate can be associated with side effects including prolonged recovery, storage and voiding symptoms, risk of acute urinary retention. Objectives: In this study, we describe a new minimally invasive device for the treatment of lower urinary track symptoms due to BPH, implanting a nitinol C shape ring in a circular incision in the prostatic tissue, surrounding the urethra, done by electrocuting blade over a dilatation balloon. Methods: Two groups of dogs (4/ group) were implanted with the device under anesthesia. Clinical observation, body weight and weekly blood and urinary tests were performed throughout the study period to evaluate safety. Fluoroscopy and cystoscopy were used throughout the study period to evaluate implant condition and urethral dilatation. At the end of 3 weeks (Group I) or 3 months (Group II), the animals were sacrificed. The implantation site was examined macroscopically and histologically to evaluate urethral dilatation and tissue response. Results: The presence of the ClearRing™ implant in an animal's prostate was associated with significant dilatation of the prostatic urethra. Fever, pain, behavior disturbances or gross hematuria, when occurred, resolved within 72 hours post procedure and no severe adverse events were observed. There was no evidence of prostatic hyperplasia associated to ring implantation. Partial epithelial coverage of the implant surface was observed without evidence of encrustation. Conclusion: The ClearRing™ implant seems a feasible minimally invasive procedure for relieving lower urinary track symptoms due to BPH.
    Curr Urol 2017;11:206-211
  • Microbiological Analysis of Urine Cultures in Women after Pelvic Reconstructive Surgery
    Background/Aims: The rate of urinary tract infection (UTI) after pelvic reconstructive surgery ranges from 9 to 48% and the most common uropathogen is Escherichia coli (E. coli). The aim of the study is to identify the predominant uro-pathogen from urine cultures in women undergoing pelvic reconstructive surgery. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on women who underwent pelvic reconstructive surgery at a tertiary care center from July 2013 to June 2015. Data was collected from each postoperative visit to evaluate urinary tract symptoms, culture results and treatment in the 3-month postoperative interval. Results: There were 880 cases reviewed (mean age of 59.6 years) during the study period. The most common organism in positive cultures was E. coli after surgery. The total UTI rate was 11.3%. Patients discharged with a Foley catheter had a UTI rate of 65.6% (p = 0.003). Diabetes, neurologic disease, tobacco use, recurrent UTIs and breast or gynecologic cancers had no significant association with UTI after surgery. Conclusion: The most common organism identified is E. coli. Almost 12% of patients will develop a UTI after pelvic reconstructive surgery. The results of this study can influence management of lower urinary tract symptoms in the postoperative period.
    Curr Urol 2017;11:212-217
  • Radiofrequency Ablation of Small Renal Masses: Outcomes, Complications and Effects on Renal Function
    Introduction: To describe oncological outcomes, effects on renal function and complications with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of T1 renal tumors in an 8-year experience. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of RFA in 89 consecutive patients between 2005 and 2013 was undertaken. Those with metastatic disease, incomplete follow-up, genetic pre-disposition to renal tumors and biopsy proven benign pathology were excluded, with 79 patients meeting inclusion criteria. Data was collected on demographics, oncological outcomes, complications and effects on renal function. Results: We demonstrate 94% disease-free survival at median follow-up of 29 months in a population consisting of 42 T1a and 37 T1b tumors. No disease related deaths were recorded in the follow-up period. Post-RFA decline in renal function was shown to correlate with tumor size and increased age (p = 0.0009/0.0021). Pre-existing renal impairment was a risk for post-RFA function decline (p < 0.005). Two complications were encountered in the series. Conclusion: RFA produces durable oncological outcomes in T1 tumors with a minimal effect on renal function and low risk of complications. Patients at risk of developing renal impairment can be identified from described risk factors.
    Curr Urol 2017;11:196-200
  • Comparison of Late Urinary Symptoms Following SBRT and SBRT with IMRT Supplementation for Prostate Cancer
    Background: Prostate cancer survivors commonly experience late-onset lower urinary tract symptoms following radiotherapy. We aimed to compare lower urinary tract symptoms in patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to those treated with a combination of lower dose SBRT and supplemental intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SBRT + IMRT). Methods: Subjects with localized prostate carcinoma scheduled to receive SBRT or a combination of SBRT and IMRT were enrolled and followed for up to 2 years after treatment completion. Participants treated with SBRT received 35-36.25 Gy in 5 fractions, while those treated with SBRT + IMRT received 19.5 Gy of SBRT in 3 fractions followed by 45-50.4 Gy of IMRT in 25-28 fractions. Urinary symptoms were measured using the American Urological Association (AUA) Symptom Score. Results: Two hundred patients received SBRT (52% intermediate risk, 37.5% low risk according to D'Amico classification) and 145 patients received SBRT + IMRT (61.4% high risk, 35.2% intermediate risk). Both groups experienced a transient spike in urinary symptoms 1 month after treatment. More severe late urinary flare (increase in AUA scores ≥ 5 points from baseline to 1 year after treatment completion and an AUA score ≥ 15 at 1 year after treatment) was experienced by patients who received SBRT compared to those treated with SBRT + IMRT. Conclusion: Participants who received SBRT and supplemental IMRT experienced less severe late urinary flare 1 year after treatment compared to those who received higher dose SBRT alone. This information can be used by clinicians to provide patients with anticipatory counseling to mitigate any psychological burden that comes with unanticipated late urinary toxicities.
    Curr Urol 2017;11:218-224
  • A 26-Year-Old Male with a 14-Year History of Left Intermittent Testicular Torsion Treated with Self-Manual Reduction
    Intermittent testicular torsion presents with recurrent episodes of severe unilateral testicular pain with resolution of symptoms between episodes. We present a case of a 26-year-old man with a 14-year history of intermittent testicular pain presenting to the urology clinic for elective surgical evaluation. He reported monthly symptoms for many years and had learned to manually reduce the torsion with each episode. Diagnosis of intermittent testicular torsion was made based on patient history and treatment with bilateral orchiopexy resulted in complete symptom resolution and without any loss of testicular function.
    Curr Urol 2017;11:166-168
 

 

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