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  • Cognitive and Psychological Impacts of Different Treatment Options for Prostate Cancer: A Critical Analysis
    Objectives: Psychological morbidity as well as cognitive impairment are increasingly reported in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. However, despite growing numbers of PCa survivors and the well estimated negative impact of cognitive decline and emotional distress on survivors' quality of life, no study has assessed the whole range of cognitive and psychological sequelae as a response to treatment options for PCa. The objective of the present review was to systematically characterize the types and estimate the prevalence of the cognitive impairment and emotional burdens that were found in PCa survivors secondary to different treatment options. Methods: Systematic, general reviews, meta-analysis, and overviews of review studies in English, that were published in PubMed during the last 10 years until l August 2019 and that reported psychological distress, anxiety, depression, cognitive decline, or dementia among individuals with PCa exposed to a particular treatment option were analyzed. Results: A total of 21 articles were reviewed. Some of the studies described one or more cognitive or psychological consequences of only one therapeutic strategy while others compared the psychological impacts among different strategies. Most of these studies suggested that either radical prostatectomy or active surveillance and radiotherapy were well-tolerated treatments in terms of psychological modifications. However, many of these patients may require additional emotional support. There is also increasing evidence that androgen deprivation therapy may be associated with depression, while controversy surrounding the association between cognitive dysfunction, dementia, and androgen deprivation therapy remains ambivalent. Conclusion: Emotional distress and cognitive decline may accompany every PCa treatment option to different degrees. Accurate information on the short- and long-term effect of treatments on cognitive and psychological aspects should be provided to patients during treatment decision-making. There is also a need to develop well-targeted psychological and neurological interventions that could help those experiencing ongoing post-treatment difficulties.
    Curr Urol 2020;14:169-177
  • Tumor Location Based Segmentation in Upper-Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Impacts on the Urothelial Recurrence-Free Survival: A Multi-Institutional Database Study
    Introduction and Objectives: The predictive impact of primary tumor location for patients with upper-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) in the presence of concomitant urothelial bladder cancer, along with urothelial recurrence after the curative treatment is still contentious. We evaluated the association between precise tumor location and concomitant presence of urothelial bladder cancer and urothelial recurrence-free survival in patients with UTUC treated by radical nephroureterectomy with a bladder cuff. Methods: A total of 1,349 patients with localized UTUC (Ta-4N0M0) from a retrospective multi-institutional cohort were studied. We queried four UTUC databases. This retrospective clinical series was of patients with localized UTUC managed by nephroureter-ectomy with a bladder cuff, for whom data were from the Nishinihon Uro-Oncology Collaborative Group registries. Patients with a history of chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded from the study. Associations between the location of the tumor and subsequent outcome following nephroureterectomy were assessed using COX multivariate analysis. The location of the tumor was verified by pathological samples. Urothelial recurrence was defined as tumor relapse in any local urothelium, and coded apart from distant metastasis. The median follow-up was 34 months. Results: A total of 887 patients had an evaluation of the tumor location in which 475 patients had pelvic tumors (53.6%), 96 had ureteral tumors in the U1 segment (10.8%), 87 in the U2 segment (9.8%), and 176 in the U3 segment (19.8%). There were 52 patients who had multifocal tumors (5.9%) as follows: 8 (0.9%) in the pelvis and ureter, 11 (1.2%) in U1 + U2, 1 (0.1%) in U1 + U3, 27 (3.0 %) in U2 + U3, and 6 (0.7%) in U1 + U2 + U3. In all, 145 (16.3%) had concomitant bladder tumors. Logistic regression analysis of gender, age, hydronephrosis, cytology, performance status, grade, lymphovascular invasion, pT, pN, and tumor focality showed that tumor location was associated with the presence of concomitant bladder cancer (p = 0.004, HR = 1.265). When the tumor location was stratified into 8 segments, including multifocal tumors, only the U3 segment remained as a predictor for the presence of concomitant bladder cancer (p = 0.002, HR = 2.872). Kaplan-Meier analysis for unifocal disease showed that lower ureter tumors (a combination of U2 and U3) had a worse prognosis for urothelial recurrence than pelvic tumors or upper ureteral tumors (U1) (p < 0.001 for lower ureteral tumors versus pelvic tumors, p = 0.322 for upper ureteral tumor versus pelvic tumor by log rank). Multivariate analysis showed that lower ureter remained as a prognostic factor for urothelial recurrence after adjusting for gender, age, hydronephrosis, urine cytology, lymphovascular invasion, pT, and pN (p < 0.001, HR = 1.469), and a similar tendency was found when the analysis was run for patients without concomitant bladder tumors (p = 0.003, HR = 1.446). Patients with lower ureteral tumors had a higher prevalence of deaths (HR = 2.227) compared to patients with upper ureter tumors. Conclusions: This multi-institutional study showed that the primary tumor locations were independently associated with the presence of concomitant bladder tumors and subsequent urothelial recurrence.
    Curr Urol 2020;14:183-190
  • Evaluation of Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate Learning Curves with and without a Structured Training Programme
    Background/Aims: To evaluate perioperative parameters, early functional outcomes, and the safety profile of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate learning curves with and without mentoring. Methods: The learning curves of 2 surgeons of their first 100 consecutive patients treated with holmium laser enucleation of the prostate were retrospectively analyzed. We analyzed demographic parameters, clinical outcomes, adverse events, and the progress during each learning experience. Results: The only statistically significant differences between the two learning curves were found for operation time (138.2 ± 60.7 vs. 98.2 ± 37.7 min; p < 0.001) in favor of the supervised approach, the total weight of resected prostatic tissue (81.5 ± 50.5 vs. 65.0 ± 6.7 g; p < 0.001) with more tissue removal by the surgeon without guidance, and the perioperative hemoglobin drop (1.9 ± 1.4 vs. 1.1 ± 1.0 g/dl; p < 0.001) in favor of the learning curve with a training programme. In multivariate logistic regression, the time factor was independently associated with a higher drop in hemoglobin levels (OR 1.015; 95% CI 1.000-1.023; p = 0.001). The improvements of clinical outcomes as determined by International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life, peak urinary flow rate and postvoid residual volume were comparable. After the first 50 procedures the mean operation time significantly improved from 147 to 107.5 minutes for the learning curve without supervision (p < 0.001), whereas the surgical time was consistent throughout the 100 cases with a mentoring programme. The overall incidence of treatment-related adverse events was significantly higher without the training programme (16 vs. 5%; p = 0.008). Conclusions: Our study clearly showed the benefits of a structured training programme to overcome the steep learning curve.
    Curr Urol 2020;14:191-199
  • Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Escherichia coli among Tunisian Outpatients with Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infection (2012-2018)
    Introduction: Community-acquired urinary tract infection is one of the most common reasons for consultation in everyday practice; it represents a major source of antibiotic consumption. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the main pathogen incriminated. Objective:· The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of community-acquired uropathogenic E coli throughout a 7-year period. Methodology: All strains of E. coli isolated from urine samples between January 1st 2012 and December 31st 2018 were included. Presence of ≥ 103 CFU/ml in urine culture media was considered as significant for urinary tract infection. The identification of E. coli strains was realized using standard laboratory techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method according to the CA-SFM/ EUCAST criteria. Results: A total of 1,335 E. coli strains were isolated. Overall susceptibility rates to antimicrobial agents were as follows: ampicillin 39.1%, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 64.9%, cefotaxime 94.9%, trimethoprim/sulfamethox-azole 67.6%, ciprofloxacin 89.2%, ofloxacin 86.9%, amikacin 98.6%, gentamicin 93.9%, nitrofurantoin 97.6% and fosfomycin 99.3%. All isolates were susceptible to carbapenems. The frequency of extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing E. coli strains was 4.7%. Susceptibility rates of E. coli for ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and amikacin remained relatively stable over the study period, whereas susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefotaxime and fluoroquinolones showed a 2-phase pattern. As for gentamicin, a continuous decrease in susceptibility rates was observed. Conclusion: Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of uropathogenic E. coli are constantly changing, due to modifications in the antibiogram interpretation criteria and antibiotic prescription habits. Rigorous surveillance of resistance rate is necessary to determine appropriate empirical treatment and limit the spread of multiresistant strains.
    Curr Urol 2020;14:200-205
  • Investigation of Triamcinolone Instillation in the Long-term Rate of Anterior Urethral Strictures' Recurrence
    Background/Aims: Previous publications confirmed that after internal urethrotomy success rates in the short-term (less than 6 months) are varied (70-80%) and in the long-term results are generally low. In this study, the efficacy of triamcinolone instillation based on a newly introduced protocol on the rate of recurrence in patients with anterior urethral strictures was evaluated. Methods: A total of 66 patients were divided into treatment group (n = 33), in which triamcinolone was instilled on urethra after removing of Foley catheter and control group (n = 33) that not received any intervention. Each 40 mg/1 ml of triamcinolone vial was dissolved in 9 ml of distilled water and then a 2 ml of diluted solution was used for each instillation and 8 ml was kept in 4°C. Triamcinolone was instilled based on daily in week 1, every other day for week 2 and then every Monday and Friday for 2 months. Penile clamp was used after instillation for 1 hour. Treatment failure was based on urine flow rate, rate of recurrence and time to appearance of recurrence. Results: There were not any significant differences regrading to age (p = 0.09), length (p = 0.41) and diameter (p = 0.36) of stricture between 2 groups. Time to appearance of recurrence showed significantly in the treatment group when compared with that in the control group (1,350 ± 900 vs. 124.3 ±112 days; p < 0.01). In the treatment group, 88% had reasonable consequence, while in control 48%. There were 3 patients with a mean length-diameter of stricture around 0.3-5 cm who showed recurrence free with the mean of 720 days after intervention. Conclusion: Administration of triamcinolone instillation in urethra is associated with a decreased risk of stricture recurrence. Superior outcomes were seen in patients with a stricture length of more than 2 cm and this may in part reflect the increasing efficacy of the instillation method in the management of urethral strictures. These findings help identify patients with aggressive features of strictures in urethra who may benefit from intensified treatment efficacy of triamcinolone instillation.
    Curr Urol 2020;14:206-210
  • Should Scrotal Color Doppler Ultrasound Be Routinely Indicated in Fertility Evaluation of Non-Azoospermic Men?
    Objective: Scrotal ultrasound is not a routine investigation in the clinical approach to male infertility analysis. This study aims to identify the role of testicular Doppler ultrasound in male infertility assessment and its relation to semen parameters in non-azoospermic men. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive analysis of 558 men from infertile couples were examined at the Hue Center for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Hue University Hospital from June 2016 to May 2018. Some cohort characteristics, semen analysis and testicular Doppler ultrasound were analyzed. Men with acute systemic diseases, acute urinary tract infection, hepatic dysfunction, malignant diseases, retrograde ejaculation, cryptorchidism or azoospermia were excluded. Results: The mean volumes of the right and left testicles were 8.87 and 8.77 ml, respectively. The total volume of the 2 sides was 17.63 ± 4.34 ml (95% confidence interval 17.27-18.00 ml). The mean right resistive index (RI) was 0.61 ± 0.23, and the mean left RI was 0.59 ± 0.01. The rate of normal semen quality was 23.2% in group with varicocele and 30.6% in group with non-varicocele. The ultrasound results from the normal semen group were much different from those of the abnormal semen group regarding testicular volume: mean right testis volume: 9.67 ± 1.88 vs. 8.75 ± 2.34 ml, p = 0.0096; mean left testis volume: 9.54 ± 1.78 vs. 8.51 ± 2.44 ml, p = 0.0047; mean total volume of 2 sides: 19.21 ± 3.60 vs. 17.26 ± 4.59 ml, p = 0.005 (varicocele group); mean right testis volume: 9.21 ± 2.21 vs. 8.63 ± 2.21 ml, p = 0.029 (non-varicocele group). The other indexes of color Doppler ultrasound (peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, RI) were not found to correlate with semen quality. Conclusions: Testicular volume which has a close relation to the semen parameters could be used as a clinical prediction factor for the quality of semen.
    Curr Urol 2020;14:211-218
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Transgender Man's Neo-Urethra after Metoidioplasty
    Metoidioplasty is a gender-affirming surgery for transgender men, which creates a neophallus using vaginal mucosa and labia majora. One known complication of this procedure is urethral stricture. We report the novel case of a patient with urethral stricture 4 years after metoidioplasty found to have squamous cell carcinoma in situ likely originating from the vaginal mucosa grafted to the neourethra, and highlight the importance of sending such strictures for pathologic evaluation.
    Curr Urol 2020;14:219-221
  • Acknowledgements to Reviewers

    Curr Urol 2020;14:222-224
  • Cystatin C and Seminal Parameter Evaluation in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease
    Objective: We aimed to investigate the possible relationship between seminal parameters and cystatin C seminal levels in an infertility evaluation of chronic hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, aged 18-60 years, in a group of 60 men undergoing hemodialysis (case) for more than 6 months, and a group of 15 healthy men (control) without clinical or laboratory signs of genitourinary tract infection. We performed a spermogram, hormonal profile, and assessment of leukocytes and cystatin levels in the semen. Results: The ages in the case and control were similar (p = 0.060).The seminal cystatin was significantly different between the case group and control group (41.16 ± 26.59 vs. 79.00 ± 05.68 mg/l, respectively, p < 0.001) and between normospermia and oligospermia (83.50 ± 02.40 vs. 30.34 ± 02.52 mg/l, respectively, p < 0.001). The mean seminal cystatin levels identified by the degrees of oligospermia (severe, moderate, and slim) were similar to each other (p > 0.05) and significantly different (p < 0.05) in relation to normospermia in the case group. The seminal cystatin levels positively correlated (p < 0.05) with sperm motility and sperm density. Conclusion: Seminal cystatin levels are associated with the numerical and motility changes evidenced in the spermogram and may be of help in the initial evaluation of clinical suspicion of sub-fertility and infertility.
    Curr Urol 2020;14:178-182
  • Evaluation of Alpha 1 Adrenoceptor Antagonist Dose Increase Therapy: An Essential Strategy for Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Associated with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
    Introduction: There have been a number of reports on dose increase therapy (DI-T) with the alpha 1 adrenoceptor antagonists (α1-blockers) naftopidil and tamsulosin for lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Methods and Results: The reports on DI-T (naftopidil 75 mg/d, tamsulosin 0.4 mg/d) in non-responders to low-dose initial therapy (LI-T, naftopidil 50 mg/d, tamsulosin 0.2 mg/d) were summarized. In each study, a non-responder was defined as a patient without sufficient improvements on the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS Quality of Life, maximum flow rate of urine, or treatment satisfaction. These reports showed that 22.4-76.1% of patients were non-responders to LI-T, indicating that a novel treatment strategy for such patients is important. Moreover, 22.5-90.0% of non-responders to LI-T showed a response to DI-T, which achieved the same level of efficacy as low-dose maintenance therapy. Specifically, the improvements of the IPSS voiding symptom sub-score and maximum flow rate of urine were superior. The predictive factors for non-response to α1-blockers LI-T were insufficient improvement of subjective symptoms and objective findings during LI-T. These patients require high-dose initial therapy or DI-T at an early stage, since adverse events associated with naftopidil and tamsulosin do not show a dose-response relationship. Conclusions: DI-T with α1-blockers has high potential as an essential treatment strategy for lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia.
    Curr Urol 2020;14:113-121


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