Is There an Optimal Curative Option in HIV-Positive Men with Localized Prostate Cancer? A Systematic Review Aims: We aimed to compare the outcome of curative treatment options in localised Prostate Cancer (PCa) amongst HIV positive (HIV+) men. Methods: A systematic search of the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, the Scopus and PubMed databases was performed (January 1995 to November 2015) using pre-determined search terms. Outcome measures for comparison included the rate of biochemical failure (BCF), survival benefit and complications. Results: A total of 14 eligible articles were identified for inclusion, representing a total of 202 HIV+ men with PCa. Radical Prostatectomy was performed in 40/153 compared to 109/153 patients undergoing alternative (non-surgical) treatments options. Only 3 studies compared outcomes within their respective study cohort. One study (n = 10) reported BCF results with 1/2 BCF patient in the surgical arm vs. 1/8 BCF positive patients in the non-surgical arm (mean 46 months follow-up), while two other studies reported no occurrences of BCF within both arms of their studies. Conclusion: Due to paucity in the literature, there is insufficient evidence to support a certain treatment modality arm specifically for HIV+ men with localized PCa. An individualized management algorithm seems feasible within this cohort, until more definitive studies are performed. Curr Urol 2018;12:169-176
Comparison of Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Upper Tract versus Lower Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Introduction: Principles of management for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) are mostly derived from knowledge of lower tract urothelial carcinoma (LTUC), however recent research indicates that these may be disparate diseases. In this review, we sought to compare the responsiveness of these tumors to similar treatment, platinum-based chemotherapy used in the adjuvant setting. Materials and Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched using a systematic search strategy. Disease-free survival (DFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with LTUC and UTUC treated with adjuvant chemotherapy were compared. Review Manager V 5.3 was used for meta-analyses. Results: Adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with improved DFS (HR 0.41, 95%CI 0.31-0.54), CSS (HR 0.29, 95%CI 0.17-0.50) and OS (HR 0.51, 95%CI 0.38-0.70) rates in LTUC. The effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy in UTUC was less pronounced with respect to DFS (HR 0.61, 95%CI 0.1-0.93) and CSS (HR 0.70, 95%CI 0.56-0.90) rates, and there was no effect on OS (HR 0.87, 95%CI 0.69-1.10). Differences in CSS and OS were significant (p < 0.0001) in favor of adjuvant chemotherapy for LTUC versus UTUC Conclusion: Despite similar histology, we found significant differences in responsiveness to adjuvant chemotherapy between LTUC and UTUC. This may add to the already growing knowledge that these are disparate diseases. Newer systemic treatments for urothelial carcinoma may prove more effective than platinum-based chemotherapy in the adjuvant setting for UTUC. Curr Urol 2018;12:177-187
The Impact of Sacral Neuromodulation on Sexual Dysfunction Background/Aims: Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) is a well-established treatment in several urinary and bowel dysfunctions, nevertheless its role on sexual dysfunction remains unclear. We evaluate the impact of SNM on sexual function and its association with age at SNM, functional diagnosis and post-void residual urine (PVR) before SNM. Methods: Patients who had SNM were retrospectively analyzed. Sexual function was assessed before and after treatment with the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) for men and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) for women. IIEF-5 and FSFI were also associated with age at SNM, functional diagnosis, and PVR. Results: Fifteen females and 9 males, with a median age of 41 years (26-72 years), median follow-up 20.7 months (2-53 months) were enrolled. IIEF-5 improved in 4 patients (p = 0.06), and FSFI total score in 5 (p = 0.2). There was significant association between functional diagnosis and FSFI total score (p = 0.05), and FSFI specific domains of arousal (p = 0.03), lubrication (p = 0.04), and satisfaction (p = 0.03), with significant improvement showed in patients with detrusor overactivity with impaired contractility. Conclusion: Although gains observed in IIEF-5 and FSFI were modest, our preliminary results show that SNM may have favorable impact on sexual function. Curr Urol 2018;12:188-194
Factors Predicting Operating Room Time in Ureteroscopy and Ureterorenoscopy Backgrounds/Aims: Operation room (OR) time is of great value affecting surgical outcome, complications and the daily surgical program with financial implications. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 570 consecutive patients submitted to ureteroscopy or ureterorenoscopy for the treatment of ureteral or renal stones. Demographic parameters, patient's stones characteristics, type of ureteroscope, surgeon experience and surgical theater characteristics were analyzed. OR time was calculated from the initiation of anesthesia to patient extubation. Multivariate analysis was conducted using a linear regression test with multiple parameters to identify predictors of OR time. Results: Eight factors were identified as significant. These include total stones volume, ureteroscope used, stone number, nurses experience, radio-opacity of the stone on kidney-ureter-bladder X-ray, main surgeon experience, operating room type, and having a nephrostomy tube prior to surgery. Conclusions: The surgical team experience and familiarity with endourological procedure, and the surgical room characteristics has a crucial impact on OR time and effectiveness. Curr Urol 2018;12:195-200
Influence of the Body Mass Index and its Effect on Tumor Characteristics and Survival among a Population with Access to Surgical Management of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Objective: To examine the association between the body mass index (BMI) and the risk of survival, and to evaluate whether tumor characteristics differ by BMI in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) managed by surgery. Methods: A clinical series on 876 patients with localized UTUC following nephroureterectomy with a bladder cuff, with data from Osaka Medical College registry (discovery cohort) and the Nagoya group (validation cohort) was examined. In addition to analyzing the overall survival and cancer-specific survival (CSS), the survival impact adjusted by pathological variables was also assessed by the BMI group. Results: The percentage of high risk features including positive lymphovascular invasion was doubled in the discovery cohort compared to the validation cohort. The group of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 was associated with improved CSS in the discovery cohort (p = 0.004), and this tendency was verified in the validation cohort (p = 0.006). Nonproportional hazards existed for the group of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and the BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2 relative to the group of BMI < 18.5 kg/m2, with a change in the CSS hazard. In multivariable Cox models, the BMI group had a superior predictive value compared with other pre-clinical factors both in the discovery cohort (HR = 3.85, p = 0.01; 95%CI: 0.09-0.73) and the validation cohort (HR = 1.56, p = 0.01; 95%CI: 0.45-0.91). When adjusted by lymphovascular invasion, the concordance of the model proposed by the discovery cohort (0.52) challenged in the validation cohort was 0.59. Conclusions: We found a clinically relevant signature for high risk patients with BMI grouping. Further research is necessary on whether tailoring recommendations for weight and nutrition management to tumor characteristics will improve outcomes. Curr Urol 2018;12:201-209
Image-Guided Access for Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: A Single-Center Experience in 591 Patients Introduction: We present our experience in image-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) access in 591 patients. Materials and Methods: An IRB-approved review of all adult PCNL cases from 2009 to 2014 was performed. Patient data, information regarding stone size and location, procedural details, clinical success, complications by access site (upper pole versus middle or lower pole) and puncture location (supracostal versus infracostal) were recorded. Results: In this study, 591 patients (314 males, 278 females, mean stone size: 23 mm, range: 4-100 mm) were included. Stone clearance was achieved in 66% of patients. There were 174 total complications (29.3%). Upper pole access was less likely to require a secondary access to achieve stone clearance (p = 0.02) and was preferentially used for both larger stones (p = 0.006) and staghorn calculi (p = 0.001). If a supracostal approach to the upper pole was used, there were significantly more complications compared to an infracostal approach (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Upper pole access for PCNL provides anatomic advantages for stone clearance but significantly increases the risk for complications when a supracostal puncture is required. Curr Urol 2018;12:210-215
Positive Association between Preoperative Total Testosterone and Lymph Node Invasion in Intermediate Risk Prostate Cancer Introduction: Prostate cancer (PCa) patients who are classified into the intermediate risk category represent a heterogeneous population needing further preoperative risk assessment. Objectives: To evaluate clinical total testosterone (TT) associations with lymph node invasion (LNI) in intermediate risk PCa. Material and Methods: Between November 2014 and July 2016, intermediate risk PCa was assessed in 154 patients who underwent extended pelvic lymph node dissection if the risk of LNI was higher than 5%. Clinical factors associated with the risk LNI were investigated by the multinomial logistic regression model. Results: The risk of LNI was assessed higher than 5% in 40.9% of cases of whom 15.5% had LNI. In the multivariate model, the risk of LNI was independently increased by prostate specific antigen (OR = 1.185; p = 0.021) and TT (OR = 1.004; p = 0.036). As a result, TT was an independent factor that associated with LNI because it increased the risk of LNI by 4% for each increment unit of TT. Conclusion: Preoperative TT independently increased the risk of LNI in the intermediate risk class of PCa patients elected to radical prostatectomy and extended pelvic lymph node dissection. TT might be a useful preoperative factor for stratifying intermediate risk patients because of the positive association of TT with high grade tumors. Curr Urol 2018;12:216-222
Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Seminal Vesicle Stones Background/Aims: Seminal vesicle (SV) stones are a rare, and thus readily misdiagnosed condition in practice. Understanding the etiology, diagnosis, and management are crucial to guide a urologist's care, and are provided in this literature review. Methods: The inclusion criteria for the literature search, using the search engines MEDLINE® and PubMed was conducted using a combined query of “seminal vesicle stone” and the following keywords: calculi, hematospermia, calcification, and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). Results: The etiology of SV stones is currently unknown where majority of the patients present with having painful ejaculation and hematospermia. However, clinicians have reported potential etiologies by categorization as an inflammatory or non-in-flammatory. A majority of the previous cases had shown multiple stones being present in the SV duct system that are typically diagnosed through radiological examination such as TRUS, MRI, or plain radiographs. Amongst the many imaging approaches, TRUS remains the primary imaging diagnoses of SV calculi. Transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy has shown to be used in an abundant of the case reports to be an ideal surgical approach for managing small SV stones. In regard to larger stones, a transperitoneal laparoscopic protocol is proper. Conclusion: The current imaging techniques have increased the case reports and diagnosis of SV calculi; however, more research is warranted for understanding the pathogenesis of the formation of SV stones. An optimal management of the extraction of SV stones depends on a number of factors such as size and location. Curr Urol 2018;12:113-120
Laparoscopic Training in Urology Residency Programs: A Systematic Review Background/Aims: Laparoscopy is a widespread surgical approach for many urological conditions. Achieving prof-ciency in laparoscopic surgery requires considerable effort due to the steep learning curve. Several residency programs include standardized laparoscopic training periods in their curricula. Our aim was to systematically analyze the evidence on the current status of training in laparoscopy in different residency programs in urology. Methods: We performed a systematic review of PubMed/Medline and the Cochrane library, in February 2018, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for the Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses Statement. Identified reports were reviewed according to the previously defined inclusion criteria. Eight publications, comprising a total of 985 urology residents, were selected for inclusion in this analysis. Results: There was a wide variation between training programs in terms of exposure to laparoscopy. Most residents considered that training in lap-aroscopy was inadequate during residency and had a low degree of confidence in independently performing laparo-scopic procedures by the end of the residency. Only North American residents reported high degrees of confidence in the possibility of performing laparoscopic procedures in the uture, whereas the remaining residents, namely from European countries, reported considerably lower degrees of confidence. Conclusion: There were considerable differences between national urology residency programs in terms of exposure to laparoscopy. Most residents would prefer higher exposure to laparoscopy throughout their residencies. Curr Urol 2018;12:121-126
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