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  • Peri-Operative Outcomes after Open and Robot-Assisted Radical Cystectomy by Using an Advanced Bipolar Seal and Cut Technology (Caiman®): A Prospective, Comparative, and Multi-Institutional Study
    Objective: To report and compare the peri-operative outcomes of patients undergoing open (ORC) and robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) for bladder cancer performed with a radiofrequency seal and cut device (Caiman®). Materials and Methods: Data of patients undergoing ORC or RARC between January 2015 and March 2016 at 6 Italian institutions were prospectively recorded and analyzed. Thirty-and 90-day complications were stratified according to the Martin's criteria and graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Data on operative time, blood loss, transfusion rate, complications, and length of stay were evaluated and compared between the ORC and RARC groups. Results: Thirty-three (66%) and 17 (34%) patients were treated with ORC and RARC, respectively. The median age was 72 (64-78) years. Overall operative time was longer in RARC compared to ORC (389 ± 80.1 vs. 242 ± 62.2 min, p < 0.001), while the estimated blood loss during cystectomy was higher after ORC (370 ± 126.8 vs. 243.3 ± 201.6 ml, p = 0.03). The transfusion rate was significantly higher in the ORC compared to RARC (24.2 vs. 5.9%, p = 0.04). Eight (19%) and 7 (16.7%) patients experienced 30- and 90-day post-operative complications, with no significant difference between ORC and RARC. Length of stay was significantly shorter in RARC group (median 7 vs. 14 days, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Open and robot-assisted procedures were safely performed by using a new advanced bipolar seal and cut technology (Caiman®). RARC demonstrated to be superior to ORC in terms of bleeding, transfusion rates and length of hospital stay, despite longer operative time.
    Curr Urol 2018;12:64-69
  • The Impact of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components on Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Narrative Mini-Review
    Background: The impact of metabolic syndrome on female sexual dysfunction received modest consideration in clinical practice. The aim of the research was to analyze the international literature to determine the relationship between the metabolic syndrome, its components and female sexual disorders. Methods: We identified relevant full-length papers by electronic databases as Index Medicus/Medline, Scopus, Life Science Journals, from 2005 to the present. Studies were searched using the following as search query: metabolic syndrome, female sexual dysfunction, obesity, systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia. Results: Women with metabolic syndrome showed higher prevalence of sexual inactivity and low sexual desire, orgasm and satisfaction respect to women without metabolic syndrome. Particularly metabolic components as diabetes mellitus, dy-slipidemia, systemic arterial hypertension were strongly associated with lower sexual desire, activity and Female Sexual Function Index total score. In contrast, other studies showed no relationship. Conclusion: Our study showed that in the clinical evaluation of women with metabolic syndrome routine inquiring about female sexual dysfunction should be recommended to ameliorate sexual function and quality of life. However more prospective and longitudinal studies on the sexual effects of metabolic syndrome should also be suggested to know the factors related to women's sexuality better.
    Curr Urol 2018;12:57-63
  • Utility of Routine Intraoperative Ureteral Frozen Section Analysis at Radical Cystectomy: Outcomes from a Regional Australian Center
    Introduction: The objective of this study was to look at the usefulness and cost effectiveness of intraoperative frozen section analysis (FSA) of the ureters at the time of radical cystectomy. Methods: Pathology notes of patients undergoing radical cystectomy for primary bladder cancer between the years 2000-2015 at our institution were reviewed. Results: A total of 196 ureteric specimens from 98 patients were reviewed. Of the 98 patients, 9% (n = 9) had positive ureteric margins, of which all were ≥ T2, with 44% (4 of 9) being T = 4. In all cases of positive FSA, preoperative clinical staging was ≥ T2. In cases where cancer staging was upgraded post-cystectomy, there were no cases of positive FSA. After adjusting for tumor stage in ≥ T2a, using Cox regression analysis, positive frozen section was associated with a 4.2 fold increase in overall mortality (95%CI 1.3-13.8; p = 0.02). Cost associated with FSA was AU$1,351.90 to obtain 1 positive result. Conclusion: Patients with positive ureteric FSA are at higher risk of mortality post cystectomy, despite excision to negative tissue. However, FSA of the distal ureters at cystectomy were unlikely to be positive unless the bladder cancer stage was ≥ T2. Hence, routine ureteric FSA may not be necessary in patients undergoing cystectomy for non-muscle invasive bladder tumors.
    Curr Urol 2018;12:70-73
  • Experience of a Tertiary-Level Urology Center in the Clinical Urological Events of Rare and Very Rare Incidence. II. Urological Self-Inflicted Harms: 1. Unintentional Patient's Side-Inflictor Urological Injuries
    Introduction: Unintentional self-inflicted injuries mainly refer to those injuries which are inflicted by the patient himself with benign intentions. In urology, they may vary and result in significant morbidities. Patients and Methods: A retrospective search of our patients' data records for the reported cases of patient's side-inflictor urological injuries during the period July 2006 - June 2016 was made. Each case was studied for age, gender, primary diagnosis, injury inflictor, involved organ, motivating factor, mechanism, diagnosis, management, and final outcome. Results: Of more than 55,000 urological procedures, 26 patients (0.047%) were involved in unintentional patient's side-inflictor urological injuries. The age range was 8-76 years and included 23 males and 3 females. Fifteen patients (57.7%) had urological disorders before the injury. They could be differentiated into direct organ involvement injuries (53.8%) and catheter involvement injuries (46.2%). External male urogenital organs were involved in 69.3% of cases which were diagnosed on physical examination. The inflictor of the injury was the patient himself, a relative, and another patient in 73.1, 19.2, and 7.7% of cases, respectively. Motivating factors were relief of painful conditions (34.6%), psychiatric disorders (38.5%), and sexual purposes (27%). Final outcomes were short-term harm, long-term harm, and permanent disability in 50, 11.5, and 38.5% of cases, respectively. Conclusion: Unintentional patient's side-inflictor urological injuries are very rare events and mainly involve the external male urogenital organs under different motivating stressors. They could be differen-tiated into direct organ and catheter manipulation injuries with variable final outcomes from mild short-term harms to permanent disabilities.
    Curr Urol 2018;12:74-80
  • The Influence of Pain on the Outcome of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy
    Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of pain scores on the efficacy of extracor-poreal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) and to identify other predictive risk factors for treatment success. Materials and Methods: A total of 476 patients who underwent ESWL (piezoelectric lithotripsy) for urolithiasis between September 2011 and December 2015 were identified. The primary end-point of this study was success rate, which was evaluated 4 months after ESWL. The secondary outcome was the occurrence of complications as a result of ESWL. Results: The average pain perception was reported at 5 on a scale from 0 to 10. The overall success rate of ESWL was found to be 43.9% and the success rate after the first ESWL was 35.1%. Univari-ate analysis showed no significant correlation between pain score and success of ESWL (p = 0.135). The level of intensity was correlated with pain scores (Pearson correlation -0.423, p < 0.001). Univariate analysis identified five predictive factors: sex, stone location, stone size, hydronephrosis and the use of tamsulosin. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that sex, stone location and size independently in-fluenced the success of ESWL (p = 0.045, p = 0.001 and p < 0.001). Conclusion: No correlation was found between the pain scores and efficacy of ESWL. Despite this absence, pain scores during ESWL sessions remain high and additional analgesia would improve patient satisfaction.
    Curr Urol 2018;12:81-87
  • Diagnostic Accuracy of a MR Protocol Acquired with and without Endorectal Coil for Detection of Prostate Cancer: A Multicenter Study
    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare diagnostic accuracy of a prostate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) protocol for detection of prostate cancer between images acquired with and without en-dorectal coil (ERC). Materials: This study was approved by the regional ethics committee. Between 2014 and 2015, 33 patients (median age 51.3 years; range 42.1-77.3 years) who underwent prostate-MRI at 3T scanners at 2 different institutions, acquired with (mpMRIERC) and without (mpMRIPPA) ERC and who received radical prostatectomy, were included in this retrospective study. Two expert readers (R1, R2) attributed a PI-RADS version 2 score for the most suspect (i. e. index) lesion for mpMRIPPA and mpMRIERC. Sensitivity and positive predictive value for detection of index lesions were assessed using 2 × 2 contingency tables. Differences between groups were tested using the McNemar test. Whole-mount histopathology served as reference standard. Results: On a quadrant-basis cumulative sensitivity ranged between 0.61-0.67 and 0.76-0.88 for mpMRIPPA and mpMRIERC protocols, respectively (p > 0.05). Cumulative positive predictive value ranged between 0.80-0.81 and 0.89-0.91 for mpMRIPPA and mpMRIERC protocols, respectively. The differences were not statistically significant for R1 (p = 0.267) or R2 (p = 0.508). Conclusion: Our results suggest that there may be no significant differences for detection of prostate cancer between images acquired with and without an ERC.
    Curr Urol 2018;12:88-96
  • National Survey of Patterns Employing Targeted MRI/US Guided Prostate Biopsy in the Diagnosis and Staging of Prostate Cancer
    Background/aims: Targeted magnetic resonance imaging/ ultrasound (MRI/US) guided biopsy is an emerging technology that has the potential to change standard of care for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. This technology is rapidly proliferating, however quantitative analysis of these trends are unavailable. The objective of this study was to assess urologist opinions regarding implementing MRI/ US imaging into their practices. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed using research electronic data capture and completed by 291 practicing urologists within the United States registered through the American Urological Association. The survey gathered information regarding demographics, changes in MRI use, opinions on targeted MRI/US guided biopsy, and barriers to implementation. The survey results were analyzed using ANOVA. Results: Practice setting and geographic region were signifIcantly associated with implementation of MRI/US guided biopsy. Total 72% of urologists in academic centers report using MRI/US targeted biopsy, compared to 38% in solo private practice. In the northeast 68% of urologists report using MRI/US biopsy, compared to 44% in the western United States. Conclusion: While there are some reservations about employing MRI/US guided biopsy as standard of care in all prostate biopsies, the data suggests urologists support its use, and are making efforts to introduce targeted MRI/US guided biopsy into their practice. Regional and practice setting variations exist in implementation.
    Curr Urol 2018;12:97-103
  • “Vaginal Delivery”: A Novel Extraction Route for Large Renal Calculi Encountered During Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty
    Background: To describe a simple, novel stone extraction technique using the transvaginal route for large renal calculi encountered during laparoscopic/robotic pyelolithotomy. Methods: After a standard approach laparoscopic pyelolithotomy in a patient with a large (42 × 36 mm) pelvic calculus, Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty was performed. A transverse posterior colpotomy was performed laparoscopically with the assistance of the Colpassist Vaginal Positioning Device (Boston Scientific) and the calculus was extracted, intact, through the vagina with the aid of an endoscopic retrieval bag. The vaginal incision was then closed intra-corporeally. A systematic review on the topic was also performed. Results: The stone was removed in its entirety through an occult vaginal incision. There were no complications reported and the patient was stone free at follow-ups. Conclusions: This simple, novel technique is an easily reproducible method, for the removal of large urinary calculi during either traditional laparoscopic or robotic-assisted laparoscopic stone surgery in the appropriate female patient. It avoids the need for additional abdominal incisions or complex techniques involving lithotripsy which may be more complicated and time consuming. All previously published stone extraction techniques for large calculi (greater than 20 mm) within this systematic review are also critically appraised.
    Curr Urol 2018;12:104-110
  • Delayed Successful Surgical Repair of Penile Fracture: A Case Report
    Penile fracture is a very rare urological emergency resulting from traumatic rupture of the tunica albuginea of one or both corpora cavernosa, usually during sexual intercourse. Immediate surgical treatment is the current standard of care with lower risks of late complications, including erectile dysfunction, penile curvature, and tunical scar formation. We, hereby, report an over delayed presentation (23 days) of a penile fracture, which was successfully managed surgically. Our case emphasizes on the fact that there are not any “lost” cases and surgical treatment should always be offered to penile fracture, independently of delayed presentation.
    Curr Urol 2018;12:111-112
  • Avoiding the Obturator Jerk during TURBT
    Introduction: Bladder cancer is the seventh most common cancer in the UK. Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) is a relatively common procedure used to treat cancer of the bladder. A serious complication of TURBT is bladder perforation, the risk of which is greatly increased in the presence of an “obturator jerk”. Methods: A literature search was performed on PubMed using the following search criteria “obturator nerve block”, “obturator nerve block in transurethral resection of bladder tumor”, “adductor spasm during transurethral resection of bladder tumor”, “bi-polar diathermy obturator nerve”, and “transvesical obturator nerve block”. Articles describing surgical and anesthetic techniques for reducing adductor spasm during resection of bladder tumors were included. Discussion: TURBT is a relatively common urological operation performed to remove tumors of the bladder. Every measure should be taken to avoid serious complications from both anesthesia and surgery. Surgical measures to reduce the likelihood of an obturator jerk include reducing the diathermy current, avoiding over-distention bladder, and using bipolar diathermy as opposed to monopolar diathermy (although there is conficting evidence for this in the literature). Anesthetists should consider the use of neuromuscular blockade or an obturator nerve block to reduce the incidence of obturator jerk and risk of bladder perforation.
    Curr Urol 2018;12:1-5


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