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Lo último en... Current Urology:


  • Evaluation of Alpha 1 Adrenoceptor Antagonist Dose Increase Therapy: An Essential Strategy for Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Associated with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
    Introduction: There have been a number of reports on dose increase therapy (DI-T) with the alpha 1 adrenoceptor antagonists (α1-blockers) naftopidil and tamsulosin for lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Methods and Results: The reports on DI-T (naftopidil 75 mg/d, tamsulosin 0.4 mg/d) in non-responders to low-dose initial therapy (LI-T, naftopidil 50 mg/d, tamsulosin 0.2 mg/d) were summarized. In each study, a non-responder was defined as a patient without sufficient improvements on the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS Quality of Life, maximum flow rate of urine, or treatment satisfaction. These reports showed that 22.4-76.1% of patients were non-responders to LI-T, indicating that a novel treatment strategy for such patients is important. Moreover, 22.5-90.0% of non-responders to LI-T showed a response to DI-T, which achieved the same level of efficacy as low-dose maintenance therapy. Specifically, the improvements of the IPSS voiding symptom sub-score and maximum flow rate of urine were superior. The predictive factors for non-response to α1-blockers LI-T were insufficient improvement of subjective symptoms and objective findings during LI-T. These patients require high-dose initial therapy or DI-T at an early stage, since adverse events associated with naftopidil and tamsulosin do not show a dose-response relationship. Conclusions: DI-T with α1-blockers has high potential as an essential treatment strategy for lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia.
    Curr Urol 2020;14:113-121
  • Is the History of Erectile Dysfunction a Reliable Risk Factor for New Onset Acute Myocardial Infarction? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) occurs as a manifestation of coronary atherosclerotic disease. The occurrence of erectile dysfunction (ED) following AMI is well documented and this association and pathophysiology is often interrelated. Few studies have objectively assessed the diagnostic value of ED as a risk factor for AMI, in general. In this review, we aimed to better outline the diagnostic predictability of ED as a precursor for ‘first/new onset' AMI. This review was performed using selective search terms, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines. The Cochrane, Embase, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched (September 2018). Selected studies were further assessed for relevance and quality (Critical Appraisal Skills Program tool-Oxford). Four studies [573 participants; mean 143 (SD ± 76.3604) and median 141 participants] were eligible for analysis. Meta-analysis of the studies resulted in a pooled sensitivity of 51.36% (95% CI: 47.37-55.33%). For the single study which reported true negative and false positive cases, a specificity of 76.53% (95% CI: 68.57-83.00%) was calculated. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that a history of ED should be used as a risk factor for new onset AMI.
    Curr Urol 2020;14:122-129
  • A Retrospective Study of Immunotherapy Treatment with Uro-Vaxom (OM-89®) for Prophylaxis of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections
    Objectives: To present our experience with the long-term preventive effect of immunotherapy with Uro-Vaxom® on recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) in adult patients. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 79 patients with recurrent UTI treated with Uro-Vaxom. Recurrent UTIs were defined as ≥ 2 infections in 6 months or ≥ 3 in 12 months. Patients received a 6 mg Uro-Vaxom capsule daily for 90 days followed by discontinuation for 3 months and then administration for the first 10 days of subsequent months 7, 8 and 9 as a ‘booster' regime. The primary outcome measure was the number of UTIs encountered in the 12 months pre-treatment compared to 12 months post-treatment. Results: There was a significant decrease in the mean number of UTIs in the year following initiation of Uro-Vaxom® compared to the year preceding administration 3.14 versus 1.53 (p < 0.05) respectively. Conclusion: Uro-Vaxom represents a safe and effective treatment option for prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs. In the UK, Uro-Vaxom is currently unlicensed. This study adds to a growing body of evidence in favor of non-antibiotic immune-prophylaxis for recurrent UTI.
    Curr Urol 2020;14:130-134
  • Preoperative Clinical Predictors of Lymphovascular Invasion of Bladder Tumors at Transurethral Resection Pathology
    Background: The assessment of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) on the specimens of a transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT) is very important for risk stratification and decision-making on further treatment for bladder cancer. Objectives: The present study aimed to identify clinical predictors associated with the risk of bladder cancer with LVI before a first TURBT. Methods: A total of 291 patients underwent a first TURBT for bladder cancer at Toho University Sakura Medical Center between January 2012 and December 2016. We analyzed predictors of LVI based on data from 217 patients and predictors of high grade and ≥ pT1 tumors based on data from the medical records of 237 patients for comparison with LVI risk factors. Results: Univariate analysis significantly associated LVI with episodes of gross hematuria, positive urinary cytology, and larger, non-papillary and sessile tumors. Multivariate analysis selected larger tumors [odds ratio (OR) 1.39; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.78; p = 0.01], and non-papillary (OR 10.05; 95% CI 3.75-26.91; p < 0.01) and sessile (OR 2.65; 95% CI 1.18-5.93; p = 0.02) tumors as significant predictors of LVI. Some predictors such as tumor size and non-papillary tumors overlapped between high-grade and ≥ pT1 bladder cancer. Conclusions: These predictors can help clinicians to identify patients with, or who are at high-risk for LVI before undergoing a first TURBT and to determine priorities for preoperative evaluation and scheduling consecutive treatments.
    Curr Urol 2020;14:135-141
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen Modulatory Effect of a Fermented Soy Supplement for Patients with an Elevated Risk of Prostate Cancer: a Non-Randomized, Retrospective Observational Registration
    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of a 6-month fermented soy supplement (equol-containing), measured by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) stabilization or PSA decrease from baseline (PSA modulatory effect) in men with an elevated risk of prostate cancer (PCa), with a WHO performance 0-2 and a follow-up of 12 months. Methods: The patient population consisted of men with an elevated risk of PCa and a prior negative prostate biopsy within 1 year from starting therapy. Serum PSA values were recorded at inclusion (iPSA), at 6 months (1PSA), and optionally at 12 months (2PSA). Statistical analysis was carried out using the Wilcoxon rank sum test (p < 0.05). Results: In total, 137 men used fermented soy for any prostatic reason. After inclusion criteria for an elevated risk of PCa and a prior negative prostate biopsy, we selected 58 patients. Among these, there was a significant PSA modulatory effect (iPSA-1PSA, p = 0.003). This modulatory effect was more strongly evident in the subgroup of patients with an elevated iPSA (≥ 4 ng/ml) (n = 33, iPSA-1PSA, p = 0.003, iPSA-2PSA, p = 0.002). Conclusions: We demonstrated a significant PSA modulatory effect of a 6-month fermented soy supplement in men with an elevated risk of PCa and a prior negative prostate biopsy. This positive effect is currently being investigated in a prospective study. Further evaluation of the role of fermented soy supplements is warranted in a preventive and therapeutic setting of men at an elevated risk of PCa.
    Curr Urol 2020;14:142-149
  • The Effect of Acetylcysteine on Renal Function in Experimental Models of Cyclophosphamide-and Ifosfamide-Induced Cystitis
    Introduction: Urotoxicity is a characteristic attribute of cy-clophosphamide and ifosfamide. Acetylcysteine is perceived as a uroprotective and possible nephroprotective compound. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of acetylcysteine treatment on the morphology of the kidneys and the urinary bladder, and renal function in rats with cystitis induced by cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide. Methods: Cystitis was induced in rats belonging to groups 2 and 3, as well as 4 and 5, by five administrations of cyclophosphamide (75 mg/kg) or ifosfamide (80 mg/kg) respectively. Additionally, groups 3 and 5 received acetylcysteine (200 mg/kg). Group 1 was “sham treated” as a control. Upon conclusion of the experiment, the animals were euthanized and their kidneys and urinary bladders were collected for histopathological analysis. The assessment of renal function was based on classic nitrogen blood parameters (urea, creatinine, and uric acid), as well as proteinuria and cystatin C (CysC) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) urinary concentrations, and their 24-hour elimination with urine. Results: Reduction of blood urea nitrogen and uric acid, and urinary pH with a significant increase of CysC and KIM-1 urinary concentrations, and their 24-hour elimination with urine were observed in groups 2 and 4. The acetylcysteine treatment did not cause a significant change of blood parameters, but significantly decreased 24-hour elimination of CysC and KIM-1 with urine, and accounted for alleviation of the histopathological abnormalities of urinary bladders, with no significant effects on the structure of the kidneys. Conclusions: Acetylcysteine used in the experimental model of cyclophosphamide- and ifosfamide-induced cystitis had a uroprotective effect and also reduced renal dysfunction, which suggests its potential use as a nephroprotective compound in cyclophosphamide/ifosfamide therapy.
    Curr Urol 2020;14:150-162
  • Cook's Hernia: Renal Tumor Parasitic Vessels Herniating into Right Inguinal Canal
    We report the incidental findings and management of a hernia whose contents included renal tumor parasitic vessels in a 52-year-old male who presented with a 22 cm large right renal tumor. His initial complaints were right sided fullness and hematuria. Incidentally on CT scan, the patient's large right renal mass was identified, as well as lower pole parasitic tumor vessels which were herniating into the patient's right inguinal canal. Parasitic tumor vessels are often found on larger obscure tumors. Few side effects or associated problems have been reported from issues with the parasitic vessels other than excessive bleeding. Never before, to our knowledge, has an inguinal hernia with renal mass parasitic vessels herniating into it been documented. We named the hernia after the general surgeon, Dr. Craig Cook, MD, FACS, who assisted during the open radical nephrectomy and who reduced and repaired the right inguinal hernia. We present a case presentation and treatment rationale for this tumor and associated parasitic vessels herniation, along with a brief re view of existing literature.
    Curr Urol 2020;14:166-168
  • Adrenal-Renal Fusion with Adrenal Cortical Adenoma and Ectopic Adrenal Tissue, Presenting as Suspected Renal Mass: A Case Report
    Adrenal-renal fusion with adrenal cortical adenoma is a rare anomaly with only a few cases described in the literature. Imaging-based identification of this anomaly remains a diagnostic challenge, making it difficult to differentiate upper pole renal malignancy from adrenal cortical adenoma. We describe a case of a 62-year-old woman with an upper pole cystic renal mass on imaging, who underwent robotic partial nephrectomy. Intraoperatively the renal mass was found to be an adrenal-renal fusion anomaly, with ectopic adrenal tissue. Adrenal-renal infusion of an adrenal cortical adenoma was confirmed on final pathology. Due to lack of imaging-based diagnosis, this condition should be considered in the differential for upper pole renal masses.
    Curr Urol 2020;14:163-165
  • The Role of Exenterative Surgery in Advanced Urological Neoplasms
    Pelvic exenterative surgery is both complex and challenging, especially in the setting of locally recurrent disease. In recent decades, improved surgical techniques have facilitated more extensive resection of both locally advanced and recurrent pelvic malignancies, but its role in urological cancer surgery is highly selective. However, it remains an important part of the armamentarium for the management of bladder and prostate cancer cases where there is local invasion into adjacent organs or localized recurrence. Better diagnostics, reconstructive options and centralized care have reduced associated morbidity considerably, and it is still used rarely in palliative settings. Despite this, there is sparse prospective evidence reporting on long-term oncological or quality of life outcomes.
    Curr Urol 2020;14:57-65
  • Survival Outcomes of Early versus Deferred Cystectomy for High-Grade Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review
    Background: Studies report that survival outcomes in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) are worse when cystectomy is delayed. However, no systematic evidence is available. Objective: The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to compare the long-term survival outcomes of patients with high-grade NMIBC (T1G3, including carcinoma in situ) who have early cystectomy compared to deferred radical cystectomy post-diagnosis. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was carried out by searching MEDLINE and related databases (Google Scholar, National Health Service Evidence) for all relevant studies published from 1946 to present. Additional studies were identified through following the references of relevant papers. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: inclusion of at least 30 patients having high-grade NMIBC, 2 groups treated with either early or deferred cystectomy with a clear temporal cut-off between groups and reported data on survival rate of at least 5 years. Results: Literature was systematically reviewed, and 10 studies were included, totaling 1,516 patients who underwent either primary cystectomy or deferred cystectomy. It was found that patients who underwent early cystectomy show improved 5- to 10-year cancer-specific survival (relative risk = 0.81, p = 0.029) suggesting a significant survival benefit when compared to deferred cystectomy. Conclusions: This study provides systematically gathered evidence showing benefit of early cystectomy. Despite this result, radical cystectomy greatly impairs quality of life and represents overtreatment for a significant minority. This result highlights the importance of a decisive treatment plan to minimize treatment delay.
    Curr Urol 2020;14:66-73
 

 

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