Mimicry of Appendicitis Symptomatology in Congenital Anomalies and Diseases of the Genitourinary System and Pregnancy Introduction: Appendicitis is a prevailing cause of acute abdomen, but is often difficult to diagnose due to its wide range of symptoms, anatomical variations, and developmental abnormalities. Urological disorders of the genitourinary tract may be closely related to appendicitis due to the close proximity of the appendix to the genitourinary tract. This review provides a summary of the urological complications and simulations of appendicitis. Both typical and urological symptoms of appendicitis are discussed, as well as recommended diagnostic and treatment methods. Methods: Medline searches were conducted via PubMed in order to incorporate data from the recent and early literature. Results: Urological manifestations of appendicitis affect the adrenal glands, kidney, retroperitoneum, ureter, bladder, prostate, scrotum, and penis. Appendicitis in pregnancy is difficult to diagnose due to variations in appendiceal position and trimester-specific symptoms. Ultrasound, CT, and MRI are used in diagnosis of appendicitis and its complications. Treatment of appendicitis may be done via open appendectomy or laparoscopic appendectomy. In some cases, other surgeries are required to treat urological complications, though surgery may be avoided completely in other cases. Conclusion: Clinical presentation and complications of appendicitis vary among patients, especially when the genitourinary tract is involved. Appendicitis may mimic urological disorders and vice versa. Awareness of differential diagnosis and proper diagnostic techniques is important in preventing delayed diagnosis and possible complications. MRI is recommended for diagnosis of pregnant patients. Ultrasound is preferred in patients exhibiting typical symptoms. Curr Urol 2015;9:169-178
Is Age an Independent Factor for Prostate Cancer? A Paired Analysis Introduction: Prostate cancer is the most prevalent malignant neoplasia among men worldwide. Several prognostic factors, including Gleason's score, the measurement of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and the evaluation of the percentage of fragments affected by cancer on prostate biopsy, have already been established. Age alone, however, has yet to be studied as a prognostic factor independently from other known factors. The aim of the present study was to compare the characteristics and the evolution of prostate cancer in different age groups using a paired analysis for patients with equivalent known prognostic factors. In addition, we aimed to determine the true impact of age on the prognosis of prostate cancer. Material and Methods: The data from 2,283 patients subjected to radical retropubic prostatectomy between 1998 and 2009 were reviewed. The patients were divided into three age groups: < 55 years old, between 56 and 65 and > 65 years old. Each patient was matched to another patient in the other groups who had the same PSA range (< 4.0, between 4.0 and 10.0 and > 10), Gleason score on the surgical specimen and prognostic range of positive fragments in the prostate biopsy (< 33%, between 34 and 50% and > 50%). After pairing, each group consisted of 215 patients, who were compared using the biochemical recurrence of the disease (PSA > 0.2), the interval for biochemical relapse, extra-capsular invasion and invasion of the seminal vesicles or the lymph nodes. RESULTS. No significant difference was observed between the groups regarding the frequency of relapses, interval of relapse, extra-capsular invasion and invasion of the seminal vesicles or lymph nodes. Discussion: None of the studied factors were affected by the age of the patients. Therefore, patients of different ages had tumors with similar characteristics and behaviors. Conclusion: When assessed separately, without the effects of the main prognostic factors, age does not appear to be an independent prognostic factor for prostate cancer. Curr Urol 2015;9:183-187
Effect of Microsurgical Subinguinal Varicocele Repair on Chronic Dull Scrotal Pain in Men with Grade II-III Lesions Introduction: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of microsurgical subinguinal varicocele repair in patients with grade II-III lesions and chronic dull scrotal pain. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 patients with grade II-III varicocele and chronic dull scrotal pain that had a microsurgical subinguinal varicocele repair were included in the study. They were followed-up for 6-12 months including pain assessment and scrotal examination. Results: Of the 29 patients, 28 (97%) reported complete resolution of pain with no palpable varicocele on scrotal examination. No cases of testicular atrophy or hydrocele formation were reported. Conclusion: These results indicated that microsurgical varicocele repair should be considered in patients with grade II-III lesions and chronic dull scrotal pain. Curr Urol 2015;9:188-191
Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Transforming Growth Factor Alpha in Cancer Bladder: Schistosomal and Non-Schistosomal Introduction: Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been described in several solid tumors including bladder cancer. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) is frequently deregulated in neoplastic cells and plays a role in the development of bladder cancer. TGFα-EGFR ligand-receptor combination constitutes an important event in multistep tumorigenesis. Methods: This study was done on 30 bladder biopsies from patients with urothelial carcinoma, 15 with squamous cell carcinoma, 10 with cystitis and 5 normal control bladder specimens. All were immuohistochemically stained with EGFR and TGFα antibodies. Results: EGFR and TGFα were over-expressed in higher grades and late stages of bladder cancer. Moreover, they show higher expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to urothelial carcinoma and in schistosomal associated lesions than in non-schistosomal associated lesions. Conclusion: EGFR and TGFα could be used as prognostic predictors in early stage and grade of bladder cancer cases, especially those with schistosomal association. In addition they can help in selecting patients who can get benefit from anti-EGFR molecular targeted therapy. Curr Urol 2015;9:192-201
Delayed Cytoreductive Nephrectomy Following Three Years of Targeted Therapy for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma We present a 55-year-old male, with good performance status who was diagnosed with a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma following a pathologic femur fracture. Despite good performance status, multifocal metastases and poor-prognostic features portended a grim prognosis with predicted overall survival of less than nine months. On initial presentation, he was excluded from cytoreductive nephrectomy based on brain metastasis and interleukin-2 was not pursued as the primary tumor was to be left in situ. The patient was reconsidered for cytoreductive nephrectomy after sustained response to fifth line targeted therapies with shrinkage of tumor burden. The post-operative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged home on postoperative day one. Temsirolimus was resumed one week after surgery and the patient reported returning to his normal activities at the two week follow-up visit. We highlight important clinical features of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, the surgical considerations for cytoreductive nephrectomy and the detailed multidisciplinary care the patient received throughout this case report. Curr Urol 2015;9:202-208
Angiomyolipoma with Epithelial Cysts Masquerading as a Cystic Renal Cell Carcinoma Angiomyolipoma with epithelial cysts (AMLEC) is a very uncommon renal tumor. AMLEC has a characteristic histological appearance and immunohistochemical staining pattern, knowledge of which should preclude misdiagnosis by pathologists. We present a rare case of an AMLEC which was suspected to be a cystic renal cell carcinoma radiologically. We describe the characteristic immunological staining pattern and ultrastructural features of this lesion and discuss the potential differential diagnoses. Curr Urol 2015;9:209-211
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