Advanced glycation products’ levels and mechanical properties of vaginal tissue in pregnancy Non-enzymatic glycation is closely associated with altered mechanical properties of connective tissue. Pregnancy, marked with high levels of female hormones, confers unique alteration to the mechanical properties of pelvic connective tissues in order to meet their physiological demands. However, there are few studies on glycation content and its influence on the mechanical properties of pelvic connective tissues during pregnancy. We hypothesise that the glycation content in pelvic tissues will change with a corresponding change in their mechanical properties, and that these changes are influenced by hormone levels.
The placental factor in spontaneous preterm birth in twin vs. singleton pregnancies The association between infection and inflammatory response in singleton preterm birth (PTB) is well established, yet, less is known about PTB in twins. We aimed to compare the placental component and pregnancy outcome in pregnancies complicated with PTB of singletons vs. twin deliveries. We hypothesized that due to different underlying mechanisms, placental inflammatory lesions will be more prevalent in placentas derived from singleton pregnancies than twins.
A rare fundal papillary adenofibromatous uterine cyst in a postmenopausal woman: A first case report The uterine cysts are rarely diagnosed when compared to ovarian cysts . Practically, uterine cysts may be cystic degeneration of uterine leiomyoma, cystic adenomyosis, congenital uterine cysts and echinococcal cysts . Adenofibroma is an extremely rare benign biphasic neoplasm that is classified into the mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumor group . These tumors tend to occur in postmenopausal and elderly women . We report a rare case of papillary adenofibromatous uterine cyst in a postmenopausal woman.
EBCOG Position Statement on Ageing and Sexual Health Life expectancy has increased remarkably in recent years. In 2013 in the European Union, life expectancy at birth was 83.3 years for women and 77.8 years for men . Worldwide, the number of postmenopausal women is estimated to reach 1.1 billion in 2025 . Overall life expectancy at age 60 is approximately another 25 years. Therefore a statement on ageing and sexual health is timely because older people remain sexually active for longer than in the past.
Vaginal wind: A literature review In the medical literature, there is little known about vaginal wind, though from clinical expertise, it turns out to be a consistent and underreported problem. The aim of this review was to collect the available literature about the different aspects of vaginal wind.
Ever growing demand for in vitro fertilization despite stable biological fertility—A European paradox Since the landmark discoveries of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in 1978 and its main variant intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in 1992–jointly called ‘IVF’ unless mentioned separately – the use of IVF has grown tremendously in high-income countries; in this study we mainly focus on Europe. Between 1997 and 2011 almost 900,000 IVF-infants were born in Europe and this number must have surpassed over 1,4 million by now . Worldwide over 5 million IVF babies were born by the end of 2013, mostly in high-income countries .
EBCOG position statement on female genital mutilation Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) affects more than 200 million girls and women in at least 30 countries mostly in Africa, but also in the Middle East and Asia . WHO defines FGM as “all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons” . Although FGM is traditional in many cultures, it is harmful to women’s health and wellbeing. The development of effective strategies to diminish and prevent detrimental procedures is now a public health priority.
EBCOG Position Statement on Caesarean Section in Europe Caesarean section is an irreplaceable life saving operation, but it is also seen by some as an alternative to vaginal birth. However the procedure is not without complications, and has implications for future pregnancies and births, some negative . There is evidence that caesarean section may also affect the immediate and future health of the baby [2–4]. The costs of caesarean section are much higher than vaginal birth and this will have implications for national budgets .
Use of Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in assisted reproductive technology: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a glycoprotein, has been used in women undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). We decided to undertake a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of G-CSF in women with thin endometrium and recurrent implantation failure (RIF) undergoing ART. The outcomes included an increase in endometrial thickness, live birth, clinical pregnancy rates and adverse effects. We included two trials evaluating women with thin endometrium and another two trials evaluating women with RIF.
Prenatal diagnosis of Ectrodactyly–Ectodermal dysplasia–Cleft (EEC) syndrome in a Chinese woman with a TP63 mutation Ectrodactyly–Ectodermal dysplasia–Cleft (EEC) syndrome is a very rare orthopaedic malformation. The affected limb, split hand/split foot, is also called lobster claw hand/foot as there is a median cleft in upper and lower limbs because of the absence of central digital rays, giving the affected limbs the appearance of lobster claws. The only proven mutations known to underlie EEC in humans have been found in the TP63 gene . Clinical variability exists in subjects with different TP63 mutations, even in patients in the same family.
Prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 20 mosaicism associated with hypoplastic nasal bone as a single sonographic marker A 28 –year-old woman (gravida 0, para 0) presented at 20+4 weeks of gestation for the second trimester analytical scan. The medical history was insignificant and we note that the first trimester ultrasound examination was missed. An absent nasal bone was the unique sonographic finding amniocentesis was performed (Fig. 1). Cytogenetic analysis included 3 independent cultures (Flask method) and 12/48 cells (25%) cells had an extra chromosome 20 (mos 47, XY, + 20 /46, XY). A-fetoprotein was 5,5μg/ml (0.66 MoM).
The Second Victim: a Review Amongst the lay and media population there is a perception that pregnancy, labour and delivery is always physiological, morbidity and mortality should be “never events” and that error is the only cause of adverse events. Those working in maternity care know that it is an imperfect art, where adverse outcomes and errors will occur. When errors do occur, there is a domino effect with three groups being involved − the patient (first victim), the staff (second victims) and the organization (third victims).
Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata We found that the rare condition leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata (LPD), is rarely reported, and we have recently diagnosed a case in our unit. This rare condition is characterised by the development of multiple smooth-muscle like nodules in the peritoneal cavity. It occurs due to a metaplasia of submesothelial multipotent mesenchymal cells . We describe a case of LPD, 18 months after total abdominal hysterectomy.
Incidence of urinary tract injury and utility of routine cystoscopy during total laparoscopic hysterectomy for endometrial cancer Current literature reports indicate an incidence of 0.7–4.0% for urinary tract injuries during minimally-invasive hysterectomy [1–5]. However, there is limited information for urinary tract injuries for patients undergoing these procedures for cancer diagnoses. Given a paradigm shift towards minimally-invasive hysterectomy for endometrial cancer due to its benefits in decreased surgical morbidity, examining the utility of routine cystoscopy during total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) is of utmost importance in the management of women with endometrial cancer.
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