Trichomonas vaginalis infection-associated risk of cervical cancer: a meta-analysis Trichomoniasis, caused by the extracellular eukaryotic parasite trichomonas vaginalis, is one of the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infections worldwide. The correlation between trichomoniasis and cervical cancer was ambiguous. This meta-analysis was carried out to determine the relevance between trichomoniasis and cervical cancer. Relevant data from 1985 to 2016 were identified through an extensive search of Medline, Cochrane database, Google Scholar, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure.
Vanishing gastroschisis visualized by antenatal ultrasound: a case report and review of literature We report a case of vanishing gastroschisis visualized by antenatal ultrasound with a 7-year long term follow-up. Currently, the child is still dependent on daily parenteral nutrition with no signs of hepatotoxicity. To our knowledge, it’s the fourth case with a long-term follow-up. Vanishing gastroschisis is a rare complication of gastroschisis. However, physicians should be aware of it because its prognosis is worse than classical gastroschisis. When a vanishing gastroschisis is visualized or suspected by antenatal ultrasound, prenatal counseling is required with explanations about the risk of short bowel syndrome, the need of parenteral nutrition and related complications (inflammatory colitis, sepsis, liver failure and organ transplant).
A study of treatments and outcomes in elderly women with cervical cancer With the population aging, development of safe and effective treatments for elderly patients with cancer is needed. Although old age is considered a poor prognostic factor, this is not only because of the patient’s disease condition or response to treatment, but also because of treatment strategy and intensity. The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of age on treatment and prognosis in patients with cervical cancer.
An unusual case of pregnancy in a patient with Caroli’s syndrome Caroli´s syndrome is a rare congenital disease with an incidence of 1:1,000,000 characterized by a non-obstructive segmental cystic dilation of large intrahepatic bile ducts . There are two distinguishable forms: Caroli’s syndrome, which is associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis and Caroli’s disease, a much more rare condition which is linked with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease . Caroli’s syndrome can affect young women in their childbearing age, however, due its rare incidence there is paucity of data in the literature [2–4].
Guillain-Barre Syndrome in pregnancy: successful multidisciplinary approach A 30 year old primigravida presented to our emergency department at 20 weeks gestation with rapid onset distal paraesthesia, generalised weakness and motor difficulty. Two weeks prior to the onset, she reported having had the influenza vaccination as recommended in pregnancy. She had no other medical history of note and reported no recent travel. The patient underwent various investigations including lumbar puncture, MRI brain and spine, blood tests including electrolytes, thyroid function, autoimmune antibody screen, HIV, hepatitis and Epstein Barr virus (EBV); all of which were normal.
"Obstetric violence": between misunderstanding and mystification as Presidents of the Scientific Societies SIGO (Italian Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics), AOGOI (Association of Italian Hospital Gynecologists Obstetrics), AGUI (Association of Italian University Gynecologists) and FNPO (National Federation of Midwife Profession Orders) we would bring to your attention the following considerations after reading in your publication the letter written by Dr. Claudia Ravaldi and other authors: "Abuse and disrespect in childbirth assistance in Italy: a community-based survey".
AGE, MENOPAUSAL STATUS AND THE BLADDER MICROBIOME The bladder is not sterile but contains a healthy community of microbes termed the microbiome. Alterations in the bladder microbiome have been demonstrated in disease states such as the overactive bladder. The microbiome in other anatomical niches is known to alter with age eg the vagina. The objective of this study was to identify if the bladder microbiome in healthy women varies with age and menopausal status.
A novel approach to ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) in a case with complete anterior placenta Developments in fetal therapy have included not only fetoscopic or open fetal surgical procedures but also intrapartum treatments, both of which contributed to lowering perinatal morbidity and mortality. Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) is an established management option for preventing catastrophic consequences of unsuccessful or delayed establishment of secured neonatal airway for fetuses with suspected airway compromise [1–4].
EXTRAUTERINE ADENOMYOMA: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Adenomyosis is the presence of endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium. The focal and localized form of adenomyosis is known as adenomyoma. It is rarely located outside the uterus which is termed as extrauterine adenomyoma. We describe three cases of extrauterine adenomyomas which were located in pararectal space, round ligament and ovary. These cases were treated by laparoscopic excision and diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. A review of the literature identified 34 cases of extrauterine adenomyomas.
Joint position statement on universal screening for GDM in Europe by FIGO, EBCOG and EAPM Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy (HIP) is a global issue as it increases risks for both the mother and child. There remains considerable disparity in clinical practice and national policies for HIP screening. FIGO, EBCOG and EAPM have joined forces to address this disparity in clinical care and reduce the burden of inter-generational Non-Communicable disease.
Conversion to IUI versus continuance with IVF in low responder patients: A systematic review Poor response to ovarian hyper-stimulation can be difficult to predict prior to stimulation even when factoring in patient age and ovarian reserve testing. When faced with the situation of poor response, patients and providers have the difficult decision to proceed with oocyte retrieval, convert to intrauterine insemination (IUI), or cancel the cycle. Although this is not an uncommon scenario, there is little data available to assist with the counseling of these patients.We performed a systematic review of published studies comparing clinical pregnancy and live births between those patients continuing with in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and those converting to IUI.
Cerebroplacental ratio before induction of labour in normally grown fetuses at term and intrapartum fetal compromise Recent literature suggests that the fetal cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) assessed before labour might be useful for the prediction of operative delivery for intrapartum fetal compromise (IFC) and for the detection of adverse neonatal outcomes in appropriately grown (AGA) fetuses . We are not aware of any study specifically addressing this issue in the setting of induction of labour. Therefore, we conducted a prospective observational cohort study in 151 consecutive singleton pregnancies with scheduled induction of labour above 37+0 weeks’ gestation.
Influence of tumour suppressor gene (TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2) polymorphisms on polycystic ovary syndrome in South Indian women Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous multifactorial endocrine metabolic disorder. In addition to hyperandrogenism, acne, hirsutism, obesity, oligoanovulation and infertility, insulin resistance is also a common feature in women of PCOS. Tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) perform essential function in the maintenance of genomic stability and regulatory pathways influencing the activity of several replication and transcription factors. The main aim of this study was to investigate the association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of TP53, BRCA1and BRCA2 genes with the susceptibility to PCOS in South Indian women.
The effects of hydrocortisone on tight junction genes in an in vitro model of the human fallopian epithelial cells The tight junction between epithelial cells helps making connections in the fallopian tube and contributes to successful fertilization. Breaking the tight junction complex induces various diseases such as the EP. Previous studies have shown that glucocorticoids are effective in repairing and maintaining intercellular tight junctions in epithelial cells of the fallopian tube, although their mechanism is still unknown. This research is a genomic study of hydrocortisone’s effect on epithelial cells of the fallopian tube.
Risk of pre-eclampsia after fresh or frozen embryo transfer in patients undergoing oocyte donation Different perinatal and neonatal adverse outcomes have been reported to be increased in frozen embryo transfer pregnancies compared with fresh embryo transfer with patient’s own oocytes. Concerning preeclampsia, it has also been reported to be increased after frozen embryo transfer.The objective of this study is to asses if there is an increased risk of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension in pregnancies achieved with oocyte donation after frozen embryo transfer compared to fresh embryo transfer.
Breast cancer screening in young women Breast cancer is the leading cause of death by cancer in women aged less than 40. However, organized screening of young healthy women has been recognized as inefficient and even deleterious by most experts , and should not been offered. Individualized screening, targeting only some young high-risk women, may be beneficial although no randomized trial has proven an impact on breast cancer mortality. All recommendations are based on expert’s opinions. This review offers a toned overview of these recommendations and underlines the need of careful information and shared decision with each patient.
Severe pain in women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion under local anaesthesia: A closer look at the predictive factors I read with great interest the article of Duros and colleagues  in a recent issue of the Journal. The authors performed an observational study of one hundred and ninety-four patients who underwent an elective first-trimester surgical abortion under local anesthetics and concluded that nearly half of the women experienced severe postoperative pain with gestation period of more than 10 weeks and parity the main predictive factors influencing the outcome. The authors should be commended for performing a well-designed study in patients undergoing obstetric procedures [2,3].
Paris Consensus on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus screening 2018 Released by the European Board and College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (EBCOG) and the European Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (DPSG), supported by FIGO, at the 26th European Congress of EBCOG, held on 8th–10th March 2018 in Paris, following a whole day symposium on the challenging issue of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) screening.
Breast cancer in pregnant patients: A review of the literature Breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy is a rare occurrence at present; however, in recent years a trend towards delayed childbirth is generating an increase in its incidence. This situation requires a multidisciplinary approach involving obstetricians, oncologists and surgeons.In this review we analyse diagnostic methods, different possible treatments and long-term patient prognosis. We conducted a search for articles published in PubMed, or in abstract form from the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS), the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting, using the search terms:“Breast cancer and pregnancy”.
Breast reconstruction after mastectomy Reconstructive surgery aims to improve quality of life by recreating a natural-looking breast that is warm to the touch. To obtain symmetry and body contour alignment, restoration of volume within the skin envelope is mandatory. The chosen reconstruction technique depends on the characteristics of the diseased breast, the shape and volume of the contralateral breast, and the technical skills of the surgical team. Timing, type and different possibilities of breast reconstruction are discussed.
Hormonal contraceptives and breast cancer: Clinical data The endocrine background of breast cancer has raised questions about the increase in risk that might bear the use of hormonal contraceptives. This has been a particular issue in the case of young women, who constitute the population of contraceptive consumers. Observational studies have been the main source of evidence, which has mainly limited to the combined estrogen-progestogen preparations, the popular pill. Studies in the 80′s and 90′s of the past century found a small, around a 20%, increase in risk.
The action of estrogens and progestogens in the young female breast Evidence from different sources sustains a pro-oncogenic role of hormones, estrogens and progestogens, on the breast. The issue is of interest for young women, who are exposed to the hormonal changes imposed by the ovarian cycle and, often, take hormones with contraceptive purposes.Experimental and clinical studies show that both estrogens and progesterone are involved in mammary development during puberty and lactation, the changes being observed across mammalian species, including humans. Estrogen receptors, and more particularly the alpha isoform, participate in molecular processes of stem cells differentiation and epithelial proliferation through paracrine actions implicating growth factors.
Obesity and breast cancer in premenopausal women: Current evidence and future perspectives There is raising evidence reporting an increased incidence of breast cancer over the past decades. Every year approximately 1.4 million new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed worldwide, with a mortality rate of approximately 450,000/year. Out of these cases, 6.6% are diagnosed in premenopausal women with a median age at diagnosis of 40 years: in premenopausal women breast cancer seems to be more aggressive than in post-menopausal women. Obesity has been reported to increase the risk of developing breast cancer and to worsen the prognosis.
Breast reconstruction after breast conservation therapy for breast cancer Conservative breast surgery followed by irradiation, often referred to as Breast conserving therapy (BCT), has replaced modified radical mastectomy for the treatment of early stage invasive breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). About 10% to 40% of the patients treated with BCT have poor cosmetic outcome results. Small tumours in large breasts can be successfully treated by lumpectomy and radiotherapy, with good cosmetic outcome. However when the tumour breast ratio is higher, the cosmetic outcome can be very disappointing.
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