Morphologic Variants of Epithelial and Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Prostate. The Pathologist's Point of View We review some of the main morphologic features of variants of epithelial and neuroendocrine tumors of the prostate. Variants that can be a challenge in making a final diagnosis include deceptively benign-looking forms. Others have a worse prognosis than the usual acinar adenocarcinoma. Some variants can be seen after therapy and some constitute different types of carcinoma arising in the prostate and are not adenocarcinomas. Several mechanisms are involved in neuroendocrine differentiation and may represent future therapeutic targets in advanced disease.
Long-term Outcome of Common Congenital Problems Surgically Treated in Childhood Many of the common congenital pathologies surgically treated early in childhood may have long-term clinical and surgical complications when they come to adulthood. Therefore, there is an obvious need of long-term follow-up for these children and urologists with expertise to recognize these complications and treat them.
Variants and Variations in Epithelial Renal Cell Tumors in Adults: The Pathologist's Point of View The Vancouver consensus conference of the International Society of Urological Pathology provided the foundation for the 2016 World Health Organization classification of renal tumors. Multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential is now the term recommended. A similar recommendation has been made in the current literature for hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors and for clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma. There are some variations in the tumor types that are not included in the World Health Organization classification, however, worth knowing, such clear cell renal cell carcinoma with hemangioblastoma-like features and unclassified renal cell carcinoma with medullary phenotype.
Recent Advances in the Surgical Treatment of Pediatric Stone Disease Management Personalized medicine has reached stone treatment in children. A multitude of different techniques with highly improved technical equipment allows for very fine tuning of stone treatment in children of all ages. Open surgery is now reserved for cases with congenital tract anomalies only. SWL always remains a good option but minimally-invasive endourological techniques can be applied to most cases.
Varicocele in Children and Adolescents: A Challenge for Diagnosis and Treatment Indications The incidence of varicocele in young adolescents and adults is around 16% and probably underestimated. There is a sudden increase in incidence during puberty. The prevalence of varicocele is 20–40% in men with fertility problems and there is a definite association between the presence of a varicocele and male fertility. Data suggest that treatment of varicoceles in subfertile men may improve a couple's chance of pregnancy. Varicocele repair in adolescents can lead to catch-up growth in an ipsilateral small testis if performed under the age of fourteen years. Of many potential approaches, microsurgical repair results in fewer complications and lower recurrence rates compared to the other techniques.
Systemic Therapy for Penile Cancer Chemotherapy for locally advanced or metastatic penile cancer has moderate activity but poor efficacy. The optimal use of chemotherapy is in the perioperative setting. Agents targeting the epidermal growth-factor receptor pathway are the most promising new drugs in this disease.
Pathology of Penile Cancer The majority of malignant tumors of the penis are squamous cell carcinomas. Numerous different subtypes have distinct features and outcomes. It has become obvious that human papillomavirus infection plays a major role. Penile tumors should be staged according to the European or American pTNM staging system.
Editorial: Pediatric Urology This issue of the European Association of Urology/European Board of Urology Update Series is another feature on special issues in pediatric urology. It is based in part on state-of-the art lectures presented at the last EAU annual conference in London this year.
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