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Este mes en... International Journal of Urology:

  • Editorial Comment to Successful third renal transplantation in a child with an occluded inferior vena cava: A novel technique to use the venous interposition between the transplant renal vein and the infrahepatic inferior vena cava
  • Editorial Comment to Feasibility of single-session endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery for ipsilateral large renal stones and retrograde intrarenal surgery for contralateral renal stones: Initial experience
  • Surgical procedures for benign prostatic hyperplasia: A nationwide survey in Japan, 2014 update
  • Editorial Comment from Dr Teishima and Dr Matsubara to Clinical application of calculated split renal volume using computed tomography-based renal volumetry after partial nephrectomy: Correlation with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan data
  • Identification of risk factors predicting febrile neutropenia in patients with metastatic germ cell tumors receiving cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy
    Objectives To identify clinical features and predictive factors of febrile neutropenia in Japanese patients with metastatic germ cell tumors undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. Methods Between April 2007 and May 2016, 86 consecutive Japanese patients with metastatic metastatic germ cell tumors were treated with cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy, including bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin, and paclitaxel, ifosfamide and cisplatin. A total of 378 chemotherapy cycles administered for these 86 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Results During the 378 cycles, consisting of 212 for bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin, and 166 for paclitaxel, ifosfamide and cisplatin, 81 episodes of febrile neutropenia (21.4%) developed in 34 patients (39.5%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low estimated glomerular filtration rate and albumin levels were independent risk factors for the development of febrile neutropenia. Furthermore, a significant difference in the incidence of febrile neutropenia was noted according to positive numbers of these two independent risk factors; that is, febrile neutropenia occurred in 13 of 171 courses in patients negative for any risk factors (7.6%), 44 of 155 courses in those positive for a single risk factor (28.4%) and 24 of 52 courses in those positive for two risk factors (46.2%). Conclusions The incidence of febrile neutropenia in Japanese metastatic germ cell tumor patients receiving cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy appears to be higher than reported previously by studies in Western countries. When carrying out cytotoxic chemotherapy, special attention should be paid to patients with low estimated glomerular filtration rate and/or albumin levels considering the high probability of febrile neutropenia.
  • Editorial Comment to Difference in toxicity reporting between patients and clinicians during systemic chemotherapy in patients with urothelial carcinoma
  • Intravesical prostatic protrusion can predict therapeutic response to silodosin in male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms
    Objectives To investigate the predicting factors of therapeutic response to α1-blockers in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostate enlargement based on a urodynamic study. Methods This was a prospective study involving 125 outpatients with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostate enlargement. They received 8 mg of silodosin for 12 months. International Prostate Symptom Score, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score, International Prostate Symptom Score quality of life assessment, and urodynamic study were used to assess subjective and objective symptoms. Patient age, prostate-specific antigen level, prostate volume, International Prostate Symptom Score, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score, maximum flow rate and post-void residual urine volume, and intravesical prostatic protrusion were investigated as potential parameters to predict the therapeutic response. Baseline parameters that influenced the improvement of International Prostate Symptom Score and bladder outlet obstruction were statistically analyzed. Results A total of 103 patients with mean age of 69.2 years and mean prostate volume of 46.8 mL were included in the analysis. A total of 39 patients (37.9%) showed insignificant improvement in International Prostate Symptom Score (<25%), whereas 36 patients (35.0%) showed insufficient improvement in bladder outlet obstruction index (less than 25%). Prostate volume, maximum flow rate and intravesical prostatic protrusion were independent predictors of ineffective treatment. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, intravesical prostatic protrusion was found to be the only factor related to improvement of both the International Prostate Symptom Score and bladder outlet obstruction. Additionally, multiple linear regression analysis showed that intravesical prostatic protrusion was the only significant factor for predicting improvement of the International Prostate Symptom Score (r = −0.56, P < 0.001) and bladder outlet obstruction (r = −0.59, P < 0.001). Conclusions Intravesical prostatic protrusion can be considered a useful predictor of therapeutic response to silodosin for subjective symptoms and bladder outlet obstruction in male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostate enlargement.
  • Editorial Comment to Intravesical prostatic protrusion can predict therapeutic response to silodosin in male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms
  • Novel biomarkers for prostate cancer: An evidence-based review for use in clinical practice
    Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease with disparate outcomes. Traditional clinical parameters are limited in their ability to differentiate between these cases, and there is uncertainty regarding management strategies. A number of novel biomarkers have emerged, but how best to use them at the point of care remains confusing. In the present review, we describe the most common novel biomarkers, their key supporting literature, and propose a meaningful algorithm for their use in clinical practice. To identify commercially available prostate cancer diagnostic tests, we carried out a PubMed literature search (through May 2016). Only English-language studies were included. We restricted our search to studies published within the past 10 years in order to focus our review on novel data. Secondary sources were also examined. We identified 12 novel biomarkers and categorized them into broad areas of clinical practice: (i) early diagnosis and screening; (ii) staging and primary treatment selection; (iii) post-treatment risk stratification; (iv) advanced disease prognosis and treatment response; and (v) emerging tests. Most validation studies rely on small retrospective cohorts and carry a high risk of bias; furthermore, most cohorts are restricted to Caucasians, with little to no representation of other geographic, racial or ethnic populations. Novel biomarkers for prostate cancer management, while potentially helpful, should not replace standard clinical information and physician judgment. They are currently best suited to serve as an adjunct to existing management tools. Clinicians should have a sound grasp of each biomarker-based test's indications and limitations.
  • Pelvic floor muscle therapy or alpha-blocking agents for treatment of men with lower urinary tract symptoms: An exploratory randomized controlled trial
  • Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits differentiation of myogenic cells in human urethral rhabdosphincter
    Objectives To examine the inhibitory effects of tumor necrosis factor-α on myogenic differentiation of human urethral rhabdosphincter cells. Methods A rhabdosphincter sample was obtained from a patient who underwent total cystectomy. To expand the lifespan of the primary cultured cells, rhabdosphincter myogenic cells were immortalized with mutated cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin D1 and telomerase. The differential potential of the cells was investigated. The transfected human rhabdosphincter cells were induced for myogenic differentiation with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α and/or the tumor necrosis factor-α antagonist etanercept at different concentrations, and activation of signaling pathways was monitored. Results Human rhabdosphincter cells were selectively cultured for at least 40 passages. Molecular analysis confirmed the expression of myosin heavy chain, which is a specific marker of differentiated muscle cells, significantly increased after differentiation induction. Although tumor necrosis factor-α treatment reduced the myosin heavy chain expression in a concentration-dependent manner, etanercept inhibited this suppression. Tumor necrosis factor-α suppressed phosphorylation of protein kinase B and p38, whereas etanercept pretreatment promoted phosphorylation and myosin heavy chain expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibits differentiation of urethral rhabdosphincter cells in part through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α might be a useful strategy to treat stress urinary incontinence.
  • Clinical application of calculated split renal volume using computed tomography-based renal volumetry after partial nephrectomy: Correlation with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan data
    Objective To evaluate the clinical application of computed tomography-based measurement of renal cortical volume and split renal volume as a single tool to assess the anatomy and renal function in patients with renal tumors before and after partial nephrectomy, and to compare the findings with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. Methods The data of 51 patients with a unilateral renal tumor managed by partial nephrectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The renal cortical volume of tumor-bearing and contralateral kidneys was measured using ImageJ software. Split estimated glomerular filtration rate and split renal volume calculated using this renal cortical volume were compared with the split renal function measured with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. Results A strong correlation between split renal function and split renal volume of the tumor-bearing kidney was observed before and after surgery (r = 0.89, P < 0.001 and r = 0.94, P < 0.001). The preoperative and postoperative split estimated glomerular filtration rate of the operated kidney showed a moderate correlation with split renal function (r = 0.39, P = 0.004 and r = 0.49, P < 0.001). The correlation between reductions in split renal function and split renal volume of the operated kidney (r = 0.87, P < 0.001) was stronger than that between split renal function and percent reduction in split estimated glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.64, P < 0.001). Conclusions The split renal volume calculated using computed tomography-based renal volumetry had a strong correlation with the split renal function measured using technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. Computed tomography-based split renal volume measurement before and after partial nephrectomy can be used as a single modality for anatomical and functional assessment of the tumor-bearing kidney.
  • Lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy and vascular function: Role of the nitric oxide–phosphodiesterase type 5–cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate pathway
    It is well known that there is an association of lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy with cardiovascular disease, suggesting that lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy is a risk factor for cardiovascular events. Vascular function, including endothelial function and vascular smooth muscle function, is involved in the pathogenesis, maintenance and development of atherosclerosis, leading to cardiovascular events. Vascular dysfunction per se should also contribute to lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy. Both lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy and vascular dysfunction have cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, aging, obesity and smoking. Inactivation of the phosphodiesterase type 5–cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate–nitric oxide pathway causes lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy through an enhancement of sympathetic nervous activity, endothelial dysfunction, increase in Rho-associated kinase activity and vasoconstriction, and decrease in blood flow of pelvic viscera. Both endogenous nitric oxide and exogenous nitric oxide act as vasodilators on vascular smooth muscle cells through an increase in the content of cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate, which is inactivated by phosphodiesterase type 5. In a clinical setting, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors are widely used in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors might have beneficial effects on vascular function through not only inhibition of cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate degradation, but also increases in testosterone levels and nitric oxide bioavailability, increase in the number and improvement of the function of endothelial progenitor cells, and decrease in insulin resistance. In the present review, the relationships between lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy, the phosphodiesterase type 5–nitric oxide–cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate pathway, vascular function and cardiovascular outcomes are examined.
  • Current status of clinical trials assessing oncolytic virus therapy for urological cancers
    Oncolytic virus therapy has recently been recognized as a promising new option for cancer treatment. Oncolytic viruses replicate selectively in cancer cells, thus killing them without harming normal cells. Notably, T-VEC (talimogene laherparepvec, formerly called OncoVEXGM-CSF), an oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of inoperable melanoma in October 2015, and was subsequently approved in Europe and Australia in 2016. The efficacies of many types of oncolytic viruses against urological cancers have been investigated in preclinical studies during the past decade, and some have already been tested in clinical trials. For example, a phase I trial of the third-generation oncolytic Herpes simplex virus type 1, G47Δ, in patients with prostate cancer was completed in 2016. We summarize the current status of clinical trials of oncolytic virus therapy in patients with the three major urological cancers: prostate, bladder and renal cell cancers. In addition to Herpes simplex virus type 1, adenoviruses, reoviruses, vaccinia virus, Sendai virus and Newcastle disease virus have also been used as parental viruses in these trials. We believe that oncolytic virus therapy is likely to become an important and major treatment option for urological cancers in the near future.
  • Successful third renal transplantation in a child with an occluded inferior vena cava: A novel technique to use the venous interposition between the transplant renal vein and the infrahepatic inferior vena cava
    A girl aged 11 years and 3 months with occlusion of the inferior vena cava had experienced two renal transplant graft failures since birth. The third renal transplant from a live donor was carried out. Preoperative evaluation showed that the arteries from the right common to the right external iliac artery were absent, and the ilio-caval vein was occluded below the level of the renal vein. The donor's renal artery was anastomosed to the aorta. The donor's ovarian and large saphenous veins were used to extend the transplant renal vein to the recipient's patent inferior vena cava. The present report concludes that the extension of a short donor renal vein using other donor veins is a viable therapeutic option for pediatric patients with vascular occlusions.
  • Does digital rectal examination predict prostate volume greater than 30 mL?
    Objectives To investigate the accuracy of digital rectal examination in estimating prostate volume in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Methods A community-based study was carried out in Japan to investigate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia. A total of 457 men were screened and deemed eligible for the present analysis. Findings on digital rectal examination were compared with prostate volume measurement by transrectal ultrasound. Five groups were identified on digital rectal examination: flat, normal, slightly enlarged, moderately enlarged and markedly enlarged. Results The median age and prostate volume were 64 years and 19.7 mL, respectively. Prostate volumes for the flat, normal, slightly enlarged, moderately enlarged, and markedly enlarged groups were 16.4, 18.3, 27.0, 41.9 and 86.3 mL, respectively. There were significant differences in prostate volume between the groups. The positive predictive value was 94.1% if flat, and normal were assumed to have a prostate volume <30 mL. The value was 80.8% if moderately enlarged, and markedly enlarged were assumed to have a prostate volume ≥30 mL. Of the men in the slightly enlarged group, 61.0% had a prostate volume <30 mL. Conclusions It is possible to stratify prostate volume according to digital rectal examination. We could determine the prostates in the flat and normal groups to have a prostate volume <30 mL, and those in the moderately enlarged and markedly enlarged groups to have a prostate volume ≥30 mL by digital rectal examination with high accuracy. Transrectal ultrasound was required for those in the slightly enlarged group.
  • Daily salt intake is an independent risk factor for pollakiuria and nocturia
    Objective To clarify the relationships between daily salt intake and lower urinary tract symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional clinical study was carried out with 728 patients. Spot urine samples were collected to evaluate estimated daily salt intake. The patients were divided into two groups based on mean salt intake (9.2 g/day). Their urinary condition was evaluated using the Core Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms score and 3-day frequency volume charts. The influence of salt intake on lower urinary tract symptoms was investigated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Daytime frequency (Q1) and nocturia (Q2) in the high salt intake group (H-salt group) were higher compared with those in the low salt intake group (L-salt group); P < 0.001). The quality of life scores and nocturnal polyuria index in the H-salt group were worse than those in the L-salt group (P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses showed daily salt intake is an independent worsening factor for high daytime frequency (odds ratio 2.32, 95% confidential interval 1.66–3.25, P < 0.001) and nocturia (odds ratio 3.05, 95% confidential interval 2.08–4.52, P < 0.001). Similarly, hypertension was identified as the independent variable for these symptoms. A limitation of the present study was that we recruited only patients with mild or no comorbidity. Conclusions Excessive daily salt intake negatively affects pollakiuria and nocturia. The presence of hypertension can also represent a worsening factor for these symptoms. Although not shown by prospective study, the appropriate control of salt intake and blood pressure might be important for the treatment of pollakiuria and nocturia.
  • Ureteroenteric anastomotic revision as initial management of stricture after urinary diversion
    Objective To report our experience with ureteroenteric anastomotic revision as initial treatment of stricture after urinary diversion. Methods An institutional review board-approved retrospective study was carried out. A total of 41 patients who underwent primary ureteroenteric anastamotic revision were identified between 2007 and 2015. Data analyzed included patient characteristics, type of diversion, estimated blood loss, operative time, change in renal function, length of stay, postoperative complications and time with nephrostomy/stent. Success of revision was defined as an improvement in hydronephrosis on radiographic imaging and/or reflux during pouchogram. Predictors of length of stay and complications were analyzed using analysis of covariance. Results A total of 50 renal units were revised with a success rate of 100%. The median length of stay was 6 days (2–16 days). There were a total of 15 complications (one major, 14 minor) in 14 patients (33% 30-day complication rate). The most common were wound infection (n = 4) and arrhythmia (n = 4). Robotic revision (n = 5) had a median length of stay of 3 days (2–4) with no complications. Conclusions Primary ureteroenteric anastomotic revisions have an excellent success rate at an experienced center and might obviate the need for multiple interventions. Open revision is associated with mostly minor complications. Robotic revision might reduce the morbidity of open revision in select cases.
  • Effectiveness of platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: A weighted propensity score analysis
    Objectives To evaluate the clinical benefit of adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy after radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer in routine clinical practice. Methods The present observational study was carried out to compare the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy versus observation post-radical cystectomy in patients with clinically muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Cancer-specific survival and overall survival between the adjuvant chemotherapy group and radical cystectomy alone group were compared using Kaplan–Meier method and log–rank test. After adjusting for background factors using propensity score weighting, differences in cancer-specific survival and overall survival between these two groups were compared. Subgroup analyses by the pathological characteristics were carried out. Results In total, 322 patients were included in the present study. Of these, 23% received adjuvant chemotherapy post-radical cystectomy. Clinicopathological characteristics showed that patients in the adjuvant chemotherapy group were pathologically more advanced and were at higher risk than the radical cystectomy alone group. In the unadjusted population, although it is not significant, the adjuvant chemotherapy group had lower overall survival (3-year overall survival; 61.5% vs 73.6%, HR 1.33, P = 0.243, log–rank test, adjuvant chemotherapy vs radical cystectomy alone). In the weighted propensity score analysis, although it is not significant, the adjuvant chemotherapy group were superior to radical cystectomy alone groups (overall survival: HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.39–1.09, P = 0.099, log–rank test, adjuvant chemotherapy vs radical cystectomy alone). Subgroup analyses showed that adjuvant chemotherapy significantly reduced the hazard ratio of overall survival and cancer-specific survival in the ≥pT3, pN+, ly+ and v+ subgroups. Conclusions Platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy might be associated with increased cancer-specific survival and overall survival in patients with high-risk invasive bladder cancer.
  • Feasibility of single-session endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery for ipsilateral large renal stones and retrograde intrarenal surgery for contralateral renal stones: Initial experience
    Objectives To analyze the feasibility of carrying out endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery with supine miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy and retrograde intrarenal surgery for patients with bilateral stones in a single session. Methods The records of consecutive patients presenting with bilateral kidney stones who underwent endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery with miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy (15-Fr miniaturized nephroscope) and retrograde intrarenal surgery on one side, and retrograde intrarenal surgery on the contralateral side were prospectively collected and analyzed. After the miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedure, flexible uretero-renoscopy was carried out for active removal of the stone fragments. Subsequently, retrograde intrarenal surgery was carried out on the contralateral side. Results Overall, 26 patients were included in the analysis. The stone-free rate of the initial endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery side was 76.9% (20/26), and the stone-free rate of the contralateral retrograde intrarenal surgery side was 92.3% (24/26). Complications occurred in two patients (postoperative bleeding and urinary tract infection); however, these conditions were completely resolved with appropriate medications within 2 weeks postoperatively. Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that accumulation of surgical experience (OR 117.3, P = 0.046) was a significant predictor for stone-free status. Conclusion Carrying out endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery and contralateral retrograde intrarenal surgery in a single session for patients with bilateral stones is feasible and safe.
  • Difference in toxicity reporting between patients and clinicians during systemic chemotherapy in patients with urothelial carcinoma
    Objectives To compare toxicity reporting between patients and clinicians in the case of systemic chemotherapy for urothelial carcinoma. Methods Between June 2013 and March 2016, 100 urothelial carcinoma patients received two courses of chemotherapy of gemcitabine plus cisplatin or gemcitabine plus carboplatin, and they were prospectively enrolled in the present study. During chemotherapy, patients answered European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire C30 quality-of-life questionnaires, including four toxicity-related symptoms (appetite loss, nausea, constipation and diarrhea). Clinicians evaluated adverse events using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Differences of toxicity reporting were compared between patients and clinicians. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to investigate potential factors for underreporting by clinicians. Results Toxicity underreporting was most frequently for diarrhea (44%), followed by appetite loss (39%), constipation (33%) and nausea (22%). In total, toxicity underreporting was observed in 72% of patients. Background-adjusted logistic regression analyses showed pretreatment quality-of-life items of global, symptomatic scores to be predictors for toxicity underreporting by clinicians. The limitations of the present study included its retrospective nature and small sample size. Conclusions Toxicity underreporting by clinicians is frequent in urothelial carcinoma patients receiving systemic chemotherapy. Pretreatment quality-of-life evaluation is essential not only for quality-of-life evaluation, but also to identify potential individuals at risk for toxicity underreporting.
  • Re: Detrusor after-contraction on ambulatory urodynamics in symptomatic women
  • Editorial Comment to Penile erection induces angiogenic, survival, and antifibrotic signals: Molecular events associated with penile erection induced by cavernous nerve stimulation in mice
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  • Prevention and treatment of symptoms associated with indwelling ureteral stents: A systematic review
    Temporary drainage of the upper urinary tract by internal ureteral stents is a routine procedure in endourology. However, it is associated with a clear side-effect profile. Our aim was to evaluate prevention and treatment options of stent-related symptoms. We carried out a systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines using MEDLINE and SCOPUS, and identified 107 appropriate records. A high number of these studies showed clear methodological limitations. Available data clearly support the use of α1-blockers in patients suffering from stent-related symptoms. It seems that antimuscarinic monotherapy or combination with α1-blockers might also play an important role, whereas the use of classical analgesics in the treatment of stent-related symptoms has not been assessed systematically within clinical trials so far. Improvements in stent design and material seem to have the potential to reduce stent-related symptoms. However, so far there is no type of stent with outstanding characteristics and clear evidence suggesting fundamental advantages compared with a standard double pigtail stent. Although stent diameter does not seem to influence patients’ comfort, it seems to be beneficial to choose a proper stent-length. Coated and drug-eluting stents, as well as intravesical drug application, seem to be promising concepts to prevent stent-related symptoms, but still have to be considered as experimental approaches. Furthermore, thorough patient education has the potential to reduce the morbidity associated with ureteral stenting. Further research in the field seems to be mandatory.
  • Editorial Comment from Dr Kawahara to Prevention and treatment of symptoms associated with indwelling ureteral stents: A systematic review
  • Editorial Comment from Dr Wada and Dr Sadahira to Prevention and treatment of symptoms associated with indwelling ureteral stents: A systematic review
  • Intravesical liposome therapy for interstitial cystitis
    Over the past two decades, there has been lot of interest in the use of liposomes as lipid-based biocompatible carriers for drugs administered by the intravesical route. The lipidic bilayer structure of liposomes facilitates their adherence to the apical membrane surface of luminal cells in the bladder, and their vesicular shape allows them to co-opt the endocytosis machinery for bladder uptake after instillation. Liposomes have been shown to enhance the penetration of both water-soluble and insoluble drugs, toxins, and oligonucleotides across the bladder epithelium. Empty liposomes composed entirely of the endogenous phospholipid, sphingomyelin, could counter mucosal inflammation and promote wound healing in patients suffering from interstitial cystitis. Recent clinical studies have tested multilamellar liposomes composed entirely of sphingomyelin as a novel intravesical therapy for interstitial cystitis. In addition, liposomes have been used as a delivery platform for the instillation of botulinum toxin in overactive bladder patients. The present review discusses the properties of liposomes that are important for their intrinsic therapeutic effect, summarizes the recently completed clinical studies with intravesical liposomes and covers the latest developments in this field.
  • Patterns of care among patients receiving sequential targeted therapies for advanced renal cell carcinoma: A retrospective chart review in the USA
    Objectives To assess real-world treatment patterns of targeted therapies after failure of first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. Methods A large, retrospective review of medical charts of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma in the USA was carried out. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize physicians’ and patients’ characteristics, treatment sequences, and reasons for treatment choices. P-values were calculated using χ2-tests for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for continuous variables. A descriptive comparison was carried out between current results and those of a previous treatment pattern study conducted in 2012 to identify changes in treatment patterns over time. Results Sunitinib and everolimus remained the most commonly-used first and second targeted therapies, respectively. Among patients who continued to a third targeted therapy, everolimus and axitinib were the most commonly-used treatments after second targeted therapy with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, respectively. The use of pazopanib as first targeted therapy, and of axitinib and sorafenib as second targeted therapies, increased over time. Efficacy, treatment guidelines and a different mechanism of action were the main reasons given by physicians for choosing among second targeted therapies after failure of a first tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Conclusions The results of the present study document patterns of care during a period of rapid and ongoing therapeutic advancement in advanced renal cell carcinoma. Sequencing of therapies warrants ongoing analysis in light of new agents entering the advanced renal cell carcinoma treatment landscape.
  • Editorial Comment from Dr Kamel and Dr Bissada to Patterns of care among patients receiving sequential targeted therapies for advanced renal cell carcinoma: A retrospective chart review in the USA
  • Editorial Comment from Dr Porta et al. to Patterns of care among patients receiving sequential targeted therapies for advanced renal cell carcinoma: A retrospective chart review in the USA
  • Biopsy undergrading in men with Gleason score 6 and fatal prostate cancer in the European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer Rotterdam
    Objectives A total of 15 men who died of prostate cancer had cT1/2 biopsy Gleason score ≤6 prostate cancer at prevalence screening in the European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer Rotterdam. Our objective was to explain (part of) these prostate cancer deaths by undergrading with the classical Gleason score. Methods Biopsy specimens of 98 men with classical Gleason score ≤6 or 3 + 4 = 7 at prevalence screening in the European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer Rotterdam were retrospectively reviewed by two pathologists using the International Society of Urological Pathology 2014 modified Gleason score. These 98 men included 15 men with cT1/2 classical Gleason score ≤6 who died of prostate cancer (cases) and 83 randomly selected men with classical Gleason score ≤6 or 3 + 4 = 7 (controls). The primary outcome was the reclassification rate from classical Gleason score ≤6 to modified classical Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7 (grade group 2) stratified for prostate cancer death. The secondary outcome was the rate of cribriform/intraductal carcinoma in Gleason score-reclassified men stratified for prostate cancer death. Results A total of 79 out of 98 men had classical Gleason score ≤6 prostate cancer. A total of eight out of 15 (53%) prostate cancer deaths with classical Gleason score ≤6 were reclassified to modified Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7, compared with 16 out of 64 (25%) men with non-fatal prostate cancer (P = 0.017). A total of five out of eight (63%) Gleason score-reclassified men with fatal prostate cancer had cribriform/intraductal carcinoma, compared with two out of 16 (13%) Gleason score-reclassified men with non-fatal prostate cancer (P = 0.011). Conclusions Part of the prostate cancer deaths with Gleason score ≤6 at prevalence screening in the European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer Rotterdam could be explained by biopsy undergrading. The present study confirms that the International Society of Urological Pathology 2014 modified Gleason score is more accurate for prognostic assessment based on prostate biopsy than the classical Gleason score.
  • Editorial Comment to Biopsy undergrading in men with Gleason score 6 and fatal prostate cancer in the European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer Rotterdam
  • Accuracy of real-time magnetic resonance imaging-transrectal ultrasound fusion image-guided transperineal target biopsy with needle tracking with a mechanical position-encoded stepper in detecting significant prostate cancer in biopsy-naïve men
    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of real-time elastic fusion image-guided transperineal prostate biopsy with needle tracking involving a mechanical position-encoded stepper in detecting clinically significant prostate cancer for biopsy-naïve men. Methods We prospectively recruited patients with serum prostate-specific antigen levels of 4.0–20 ng/mL and suspicious of prostate cancer on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. They underwent targeted biopsies for cancer-suspicious lesions and 12-core systematic biopsies. Pathological findings from biopsy cores and whole-mount specimens (for those who underwent radical prostatectomy) were analyzed. Results A total of 250 patients were included, in whom targeted and systematic biopsies detected significant cancers in 55% and 25%, respectively (P < 0.001). The targeted biopsy cores (n = 527) showed significantly greater biopsy-proven significant cancer detection rates (P < 0.001), cancer core length (P < 0.0001), cancer core percentage (P < 0.001) and Gleason scores (P < 0.001) than did the systematic biopsies. The significant cancer detection rate for targeted lesions (those with Prostate Imaging and Reporting and Data System classification scores of 5) was 80%. Biopsy-proven significant cancer detection rates for targeted lesions ≤10 mm and >10 mm were similar for Prostate Imaging and Reporting and Data System scores of 4 (P = 0.707) and 5 (P = 0.386). In whole-mount specimens (n = 30), locations for 95% of significant cancers were diagnosed preoperatively. Targeted biopsies alone diagnosed 79% of significant cancers. Conclusions Although targeted biopsies are superior to systematic biopsies in detecting significant cancers, systematic biopsies maintain an important role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in biopsy-naïve men.
  • Prevalence and characteristics of fecal antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in a cohort of Japanese men undergoing prostate biopsy
    Objectives To examine resistant Escherichia coli in rectal swab culture of Japanese men undergoing prostate biopsy, and to determine its prevalence, genotypic characteristics and carriage risk factors. Methods Rectal swabs of consecutive men undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy from April 2013 to March 2015 were cultured to isolate fluoroquinolone-resistant and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of these resistant E. coli strains and extended-spectrum β-lactamase genotyping were examined. The risk factors of antimicrobial resistance carriage were also examined. Results The cohort was 376 men with a mean age of 67.8 years. Fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli were detected in 37 men (9.8%) and 22 men (5.9%), respectively, with fluoroquinolone-resistant and/or extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli in 48 men (13.0%). All 49 antimicrobial-resistant strains were susceptible to tazobactam/piperacillin, amikacin, fosfomycin, meropenem and faropenem. CTX-M-9 and CTX-M-1 group were detected in 14 (63.6%) and eight (36.4%) men, respectively. CTX-M-9 showed relatively higher susceptibility to LVFX and minocycline compared with CTX-M-1. Diabetes mellitus was a significant factor for carriage of resistance by multivariate analysis (odds ratio 2.12, P = 0.039). Conclusions The present study showed the fecal carriage of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli at 9.8% and 5.9%, respectively, with CTX-M-9 group of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli comprising 63.6%, in Japanese men receiving prostate biopsy. The carriage of fluoroquinolone-resistant and/or extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli was significantly related to diabetes.
  • Radical prostatectomy restores detrusor contraction pattern according to pressure flow parameters
    Objectives Pressure flow studies are regarded as the gold standard for evaluating both bladder outlet obstruction and detrusor contractility, but none of the current methods for evaluating bladder contraction patterns are well validated. Impaired bladder contraction results in a lower peak Watts factor and poorly sustained detrusor contractions. From this viewpoint, the maximum Watts factor and its pattern should be considered separately. To examine detrusor contraction pattern in patients after radical prostatectomy by using multiple parameters. Methods A total of 37 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer underwent both pre- and post-radical prostatectomy urodynamic evaluations. The examined urodynamic parameters included the maximum flow rate, post-void residual volume, detrusor pressure at maximum flow, maximum Watts factor and relative volume (maximum Watts factor). Some parameters were defined from the Watts factor curve throughout micturition. Relative volume (maximum Watts factor) was the relative bladder volume at the maximum Watts factor. A normal detrusor contractility pattern involves an increase in Watts factor at the initiation followed by further gradual increases until the end of micturition. Results Maximum flow rate increased significantly after radical prostatectomy (pre: 13.0 ± 6.5, post: 17.3 ± 7.7 mL/min; P < 0.01), whereas detrusor pressure at maximum flow and post-void residual volume decreased significantly (pre: 49.6 ± 21.6 and 31.4 ± 18.2 cmH2O; post: 48.6 ± 66.1 and 10.1 ± 28.5 mL; P < 0.05). Maximum Watts factor did not change significantly after radical prostatectomy (pre: 10.5 ± 3.1 W/m2, post: 11.0 ± 3.2 W/m2), but relative volume (maximum Watts factor) decreased significantly (pre: 0.48 ± 0.3, post: 0.20 ± 0.20; P < 0.001). Maximum Watts factor represents the maximum power of bladder contraction at a particular point in time, whereas relative volume (maximum Watts factor) can be used to detect changes in detrusor contraction pattern. Conclusions Evaluation of relative volume (maximum Watts factor) confirms that radical prostatectomy restores the normal detrusor contractility pattern in prostate cancer patients.
  • Laparoscopic implantation of artificial urinary sphincter in women with intrinsic sphincter deficiency: Mid-term outcomes
    Objectives To analyze the safety and the mid-term continence rates of laparoscopic implantation of artificial urinary sphincter in women. Methods A total of 52 women with intrinsic sphincter deficiency underwent a laparoscopic artificial urinary sphincter implantation from 2005 to 2015 at Surgical Clinic Du Pré, Le Mans, France. The artificial urinary sphincter was implanted around the bladder neck by a transperitoneal laparoscopic approach to the Retzius space. Urodynamic assessment was carried out. Postoperative functional outcome was defined as success (no leaking, no pad use), improvement (>50% decrease in number of leakages, >50% decrease in number of pads used or use of light protection) or failure (<50% improvement, persistent or increased leaking). Outcome measures also included perioperative and long-term complications. Results The mean age of the patients was 69.1 years (range 64–82 years). After a mean follow up of 37.5 months (median 24 months; range 1–125 months), 38 (77.6%) patients were considered to be continent (no leakage, no pads), and eight (16.3%) improved their grade of incontinence. Three patients abandoned the follow-up schedule and were excluded. There was no perioperative severe complication. Artificial urinary sphincter revision was needed in 11 (22.4%) patients, requiring a total of seven redo procedures and four permanent sphincter removals. The main reasons for redo procedures were six (11.2%) mechanical problems and one vaginal erosion (2%). Conclusions Herein we report one of the largest series with the longest follow up evaluating the outcomes of laparoscopic artificial urinary sphincter implantation in female patients. This approach seems to be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with intrinsic sphincter deficiency.
  • Atrophic bladder in long-term dialysis patients increases the risk for urological complications after kidney transplantation
    Objectives To evaluate the risk for urological complications after kidney transplantation at a single medical center in Japan. Methods In the present study, 408 kidney recipients (255 men, 153 women) were enrolled. There were 349 living and 59 deceased donors. The average age of the recipients was 42.5 ± 13.5 years, and the average pretransplant dialysis period was 71.8 ± 88.2 months. Ureteroneocystostomy was carried out on 347 patients, and ureteroureterostomy on 61 patients. We investigated the relationship between pretransplant duration of dialysis and bladder capacity, and examined the risk factors for urological complication. We also evaluated the incidence of vesicoureteral reflux in 191 recipients who underwent ureteroneocystostomy during transplantation. Results The preoperative duration of dialysis therapy showed a significant negative correlation with bladder capacity (R2 = 0.33, P < 0.001). The overall urological complication rate was 3.4% (14 patients), including urinary leakage (12 patients) and ureteral stricture (two patients). Univariate analysis showed that atrophic bladder, long-term dialysis therapy, deceased donor and ureteroureterostomy were associated with a higher incidence of urological complications (odds ratio 8.05, 4.43, 3.42 and 3.35; P < 0.01, P = 0.01, P = 0.04 and P = 0.04, respectively). Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that atrophic bladder was the only significant factor associated with urological complications (odds ratio 10.37; P = 0.01). Among 191 recipients, vesicoureteral reflux was observed in 32 (16.8%). The incidence of vesicoureteral reflux was significantly higher in patients with atrophic bladder. Conclusions Bladder atrophy in renal transplant recipients after long-term dialysis therapy is associated with a higher risk of urological complications.
  • Total proximal ureter substitution using buccal mucosa
    The surgical treatment of a long proximal ureteral stricture is a challenging situation for reconstructive surgeons. Despite the underlying morbidities, ileal interposition and autotransplantation are the options available to treat complex cases of long segment ureteral stricture. Buccal mucosa has shown excellent results in urethroplasty. However, its use in ureteral reconstruction is infrequent. We report on a 64-year-old female patient with multiple comorbidities and prior abdominal surgeries for Crohn's disease who underwent a successful total substitution of a long segment of the proximal ureter using buccal mucosa. Regular postoperative isotope scans showed improvement in renal function. Based on the pleasant outcome of this case and review of the literature, buccal mucosa might be a viable option with low morbidity in selected cases.
  • Editorial Comment from Dr Goel to Total proximal ureter substitution using buccal mucosa
  • Editorial Comment from Dr Zengin to Total proximal ureter substitution using buccal mucosa
  • Editorial Comment from Dr Pandey to Total proximal ureter substitution using buccal mucosa
  • Two-year-old girl with impacted ureteral stone successfully treated with a single session of combined percutaneous nephrostomy and ureteroscopy
    Impacted stones frequently cause changes in the ureter, including edema of the ureteral wall, stone embedding in the ureteral mucosa or ureteral bending, which often preclude spontaneous passing of the stone and increase the risk of complications during surgery. When stone impaction is suspected preoperatively, management should be adapted accordingly. However, surgical treatment strategies remain controversial in pediatric patients because of the scarcity of cases reported. We describe the case of a 2-year-old girl with a right impacted ureteral stone who presented with gross hematuria and pyuria, but no metabolic risk factors or hematological abnormalities. Ureteroscopy was carried out in the presence of a percutaneous nephrostomy catheter. At the 7-month follow up, hydronephrosis had improved from grade 3 to grade 1, and the ureter was free from residual or recurrent stones. No complications were noted. We believe that percutaneous nephrostomy before the lithotripsy facilitates treatment for impacted stones in pediatric patients.
  • Editorial Comment to Two-year-old girl with impacted ureteral stone successfully treated with a single session of combined percutaneous nephrostomy and ureteroscopy
  • Improved technique for intracorporeal neobladder-urethral anastomosis in laparoscopic radical cystectomy
  • Editorial Comment to Improved technique for intracorporeal neobladder-urethral anastomosis in laparoscopic radical cystectomy
  • Response to Editorial Comment from Dr Schwen and Dr Pierorazio to Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy confers excellent long-term outcomes for the treatment of complex cystic renal tumors: Median follow up of 58 months
  • Re: Potassium-sodium citrate prevents the development of renal microcalculi into symptomatic stones in calcium stone-forming patients
  • Response to Re: Potassium-sodium citrate prevents the development of renal microcalculi into symptomatic stones in calcium stone-forming patients
 

 

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