High-risk prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with higher rates of biochemical recurrence, clinical recurrence, metastasis, and PCa-specific death, compared to low-and intermediate-risk disease. Herein, we review the various definitions of high-risk PCa, describe the rationale for neoadjuvant therapy prior to radical prostatectomy, and summarize the contemporary data on neoadjuvant therapies. Since the 1990s, several randomized trials of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) have consistently demonstrated improved pathological parameters, specifically tumor downstaging and reduced extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, and positive surgical margins without improvements in cancer-specific or overall survival. These studies, however, were not exclusive to high-risk patients and were limited by suboptimal follow-up periods. Newer studies of neoadjuvant ADT in high-risk PCa show promising pathological and oncological outcomes. Recent level 1 data suggests neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapy (CHT) may improve longer-term survival in high-risk PCa. Immunologic neoadjuvant trials are in their infancy, and further study is required. Neoadjuvant therapies may be promising additions to the multimodal therapeutic landscape of high-risk and locally advanced PCa in the near future.
The incidence of nephrolithiasis is increasing worldwide. Understanding how gut microbiome influences oxalate homeostasis has the potential to offer new strategies to prevent nephrolithiasis. The literature was reviewed to gather the evidence on the association between gut microbiome, hyperoxaluria and nephrolithiasis, and to identify the therapeutic interventions focused on the gut microbiome that could decrease hyperoxaluria and prevent nephrolithiasis. Gut microbiome is constituted by a plethora of microbiota including Oxalobacter formigenes (Oxf) and lactobacilli. Oxf can degrade dietary oxalate and induce enteral oxalate secretion. Animal studies suggested an association between oral Oxf supplementation and a decrease in hyperoxaluria. However, human studies have showed inconsistent results. Oral supplementation of lactobacilli did not show benefit in decreasing the hyperoxaluria. Antibiotic exposure, by affecting the gut microbiome, has been associated with an increase in nephrolithiasis. In vivo studies suggest fecal transplantation as a potential treatment option for reducing nephrolithiasis, but needs further evaluation in clinical studies. The current evidence suggests an association between gut microbiome and nephrolithiasis. However, the strategies focused on modulating gut microbiome for decreasing hyperoxaluria and preventing nephrolithiasis need further research. Judicious use of antibiotics in those predisposed to nephrolithiasis offers a preventative strategy for decreasing nephrolithiasis.
Introduction: Urology residents are encouraged to learn ultrasound (U/S) imaging, yet there are few tools available for teaching and assessing a resident's competence. The aim of this study was to test the new SonoSim LiveScan® and to propose a competency-based assessment model for the urology graduate medical education.
Materials and Methods: Urology residents attended an interactive training session covering the urological U/S techniques guided by the assessment model developed by the authors. Faculty members evaluated the residents using defined objectives, and the residents were surveyed on their comfort level for performing each of the model tasks. A subset of the residents then underwent a structured testing using the SonoSim LiveScan device 6 months following the training. The model developed assessed: general U/S setup, structure identification, and pathologic clinical scenarios.
Results: The residents felt most comfortable in identifying the bladder (4.73/5) and the kidneys (4.53/5) during the training sessions. They felt least comfortable while testing for total ureteric obstruction (3.13/5). All the residents were confident that additional U/S training sessions would improve their comfort level in performing the assessed objectives. Resident's assessment performed at 6 months had a median test score of 15.5/20 and the assessment scores increased with resident seniority. Self-reported comfort, however, did not seem to correlate with seniority. In general, the residents felt that the SonoSim device was highly functional (4.4/5) and the pathologic assessments in particular were very helpful (4.4/5).
Conclusions: Through pilot testing, we propose that a competency-based assessment used with the SonoSim LiveScan could guide the resident's education through the acquisition of U/S skills and warrants testing in a larger cohort.
Introduction: Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is uncommon, accounting for 5%–10% of all urothelial carcinomas. Current standard of care for localized disease consists of radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) which leads to loss of half the patient's functioning nephrons. Percutaneous nephron-sparing surgery (PCNSS) is an alternative minimally-invasive approach in selected cases where nephron preservation is desired. The long-term outcomes of this procedure at a single center are described.
Methods: All patients undergoing PCNSS, with the operation carried out by a single surgeon, were included. Equipment used was a standard 26Ch resectoscope through a 30Ch Amplatz sheath, with all patients receiving postoperative intrapelvic Mitomycin. Data for each patient were collected on patient age; tumor size at diagnosis; grade; stage; oncological recurrence; requirement for subsequent RNU; and overall survival. Primary outcomes were disease recurrence and overall mortality, and secondary outcome was rate of subsequent RNU.
Results: Fifteen patients in total underwent PCNSS, 14 were diagnosed with UTUC; benign leiomyoma was proven in one patient and excluded from final analysis. Overall survival at 5 and 10 years was 92.9% and 78.6%, respectively, with disease-specific mortality at 10 years of 7.1% (one patient who developed metastatic carcinoma); 21.4% of patients had recurrent ipsilateral UTUC and all required subsequent RNU for this indication. No patients had seeding of the percutaneous tract.
Conclusion: PCNSS for UTUC is a feasible approach to consider in carefully selected patients who agree to intensive follow-up, even for higher grade tumors. Where recurrent UTUC occurs, further management options still exist for disease treatment.
Introduction: We aimed to compare extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in pediatric patients with ≤2 cm renal pelvis and proximal ureteral stones.
Methods: Medical records of 165 pediatric patients who underwent shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) or RIRS for upper urinary system stones up to 2 cm between January 2014 and December 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. After exclusions, the remaining 130 patients included 73 in the SWL group and 57 in the RIRS group. The groups were compared for demographic features, stone characteristics, operative data, success, and complications.
Results: The mean stone volume was 308 ± 85 (54–800) and 336 ± 96 (60–720) mm3 in SWL and RIRS groups, respectively (P = 0.46). There were no significant differences in success rates (60% vs. 70%, SWL and RIRS), auxiliary treatment rates (16.4% vs. 14%), and complication rates (26% vs. 24.5%). The number of active procedural sessions and number of anesthesia sessions was higher in the RIRS group (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively), while the procedural time and anesthesia time were higher in the SWL group (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Stone size was found to be an independent success predictive factor for both the treatment modalities.
Conclusions: Both SWL and RIRS have similar success, complication, and auxiliary treatment rates. RIRS was superior in terms of total procedure and anesthesia durations, while SWL was superior in terms of numbers of anesthesia sessions and active procedure sessions. As both have similar success rates, the more minimally invasive SWL should be chosen for pediatric upper urinary system stones of less than 2 cm size.
Introduction: Bilateral hydronephrosis on prenatal ultrasound can be managed expectantly or with surgical intervention. The treatment strategies and outcomes are not clearly defined.
Methods: We conducted a retrospectively audit of outcomes of management of prenatally detected severe bilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) in our institution.Patients with bilateral Grade 3–4 hydronephrosis were included. Those with complications like rupture, underwent bilateral intervention within 4 weeks; in the remaining, unilateral pyeloplasty was performed at 4–12 weeks. The contralateral renal unit was re-evaluated at a later date for further improvement or deterioration. All the patients were followed up with ultrasonography and renogram at 3 months, 6 months, and 1-year post operatively. The case records were analyzed for the resolution of antero-posterior diameter (APD) or the improvement in single-kidney glomerular filtration rate (s-GFR) in the operated units.
Results: Over 15 years, 28 patients (56 renal units) had bilateral UPJO (male-to-female ratio = 13:1). Twelve units underwent neonatal intervention to tackle the complications (6 bilateral pyeloplasty), 17 units underwent early pyeloplasty, and 15 underwent late pyeloplasty. Twelve of the twenty-two (54%) contralateral units, which were stented/observed, resolved spontaneously. Receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed that those with initial APD <25 mm and initial s-GFR >35 ml/m were more likely to improve during the observation. Ten of the forty-four operated units (22%) failed to show an improvement. Units with initial s-GFR <10 ml/m had poor chance of postoperative functional recovery.
Conclusions: In neonates with bilateral UPJO, the worse affected kidney is operated first, as it still has the potential to recover. The contralateral milder UPJO unit is known to recover spontaneously following unilateral pyeloplasty. In those with bilateral Grade 4 UPJO and mass, bilateral pyeloplasty is feasible. Alternatively, unilateral pyeloplasty + contralateral cystoscopic retrograde stenting may prevent rupture or functional deterioration in the opposite kidney.
Introduction: Cystitis cystica et glandularis (CCG) is a hyper proliferative condition, likely representing a local immune response to chronic inflammatory stimulus. It has been hypothesized as a potential precursor of adenocarcinoma; however, a definite association has not been demonstrated. We aimed to determine whether CCG is a precursor to malignancy and to study the correlation of its two histological variants: the typical and the intestinal metaplasia (IM) type CCG.
Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, all the cases of CCG diagnosed and treated between January 2012 and December 2019 were analyzed. All the cases were followed up cystoscopically and biopsies were taken if the lesion persisted. The development of adenocarcinoma during the follow-up was noted. The patients were divided into two groups based on the histological subtype, i.e., the typical type and the IM type, and the two groups were also compared in terms of presentation, cystoscopic appearance, and development of adenocarcinoma.
Results: A total of 64 patients, with 52 in the typical and 12 in the IM group were analyzed. The commonest symptom was hematuria (59.38%), followed by irritative bladder symptoms (51.56%). The median follow-up period was 5 years and 5 months (range: 7–96 months) and no patient progressed to adenocarcinoma. On comparing the two groups, the lesions weresignificantly more extensive in the IM group (50% vs. 15.38%). However, there were no differences in the symptoms or the development of malignancy between the two groups.
Conclusions: At a median of 5 years and 5 months of follow up, CCG (including the IM-type) did not show any increase in the risk of malignancy.
Introduction: Endovascular and percutaneous interventions are promising alternatives to surgical management of traumatic renal injuries and often avert the need for nephrectomies. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of interventional radiology and angiographic interventions in the management of renal vascular injury.
Materials and Methods: Our prospective study was performed over a period of 6 months. Twenty-five patients who presented with either persistent hematuria or hemodynamic instability after traumatic or iatrogenic renal injuries were selected. Angiographic embolization using varying combinations of coils, glue, and Gelfoam® was performed to address the vascular injuries, either directly in hemodynamically unstable patients or after preprocedural imaging in hemodynamically stable patients. Patients were then followed up till discharge from hospital 48 h later and at 2 weeks and 4 weeks postprocedure for any recurrence of hematuria or hemodynamic instability. Technical and clinical success rates were calculated using descriptive statistics.
Results: Pseudoaneurysms were the most common form of arterial injury (22 cases), followed by arteriovenous fistula (8) and active extravasation (5). Segmental arteries are the most commonly involved (12 cases), followed by interlobar (9) and arcuate (3) arteries. Gelfoam® was used in five patients with active contrast extravasation and was 100% effective in arresting active bleeding. Coiling alone had a 79.16% technical success rate in management, while additional use of glue in four failed cases led to a 95.83% technical success rate in the first attempt. The ultimate technical and clinical success rate of interventional radiology in renal trauma management (after the second attempt in one failed case) was 100%.
Conclusion: Endovascular management is an effective and safe alternative to surgical management of both iatrogenic and accidental renal vascular injuries.
Orchiopexy for undescended testis is a standard procedure in pediatric patients. Intraoperative complications during orchiopexy are rare. Major complications reported include injury to vas deferens or testicular vessels, leading to testicular atrophy. Damage to the femoral artery has not been described in the literature as a complication during orchiopexy. In this report, we describe a case where injury to the right femoral artery leading to acute limb ischemia occurred while performing orchiopexy.
Xanthogranulomatous cystitis affecting the urinary bladder is extremely rare, and only around thirty adult cases and two pediatric cases have been reported in the literature. The treatment is predominantly surgical as the lesion is mostly infiltrative and mimics malignancy. We report probably the third pediatric case, who presented with symptoms of urinary tract infection and urinary retention and was initially suspected as bladder tumor on imaging. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology, and the child responded well to aggressive antibiotic therapy alone.
We describe the successful management of a 50-year male who presented with gradually progressive abdominal swelling for over 20 years. The highlights of the case are giant renal mass occupying the whole abdomen and the absence of metastasis despite a long history.
The recently recognized immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease presenting as renal pelvic pseudotumor is rare. A definitive diagnosis is often difficult to obtain preoperatively, with patients being subjected to radical surgery due to suspicion of malignancy. We present a 64-year-old male with lower urinary tract symptoms, who, on evaluation had a right renal pelvic tumor on imaging and ureteroscopy. The patient underwent laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy on clinical suspicion of upper tract urothelial carcinoma. The final histopathology revealed IgG4-related disease.
Malacoplakia is an inflammatory lesion which can affect any organ in the body but predominantly affects the genitourinary system and mainly the bladder. Malacoplakia of the bladder has variable presentations and is associated with urinary infection or immunosuppression. Mullerianosis of the bladder is a rare lesion that consists of two out of the three tissues, endometriosis, endocervicosis, or endosalpingiosis. It is usually associated with a previous cesarean section or pelvic surgery. The diagnosis is confirmed on histopathological examination. Malacoplakia and mullerianosis are usually isolated lesions of the bladder. We present a unique case of coexistence of malacoplakia and mullerianosis in the urinary bladder, reported for the first time in the literature.
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