Introduction: Neurogenic bladder patients are at long-term risk of secondary upper urinary tract damage. Symptoms are unreliable and follow-up urodynamics is the only method of ascertaining safety of bladder pressures. This review examines the recommendations, shortcomings and utilization of existing guidelines. The evidence with regard to follow-up urodynamics in different settings relevant to neurogenic bladder is evaluated and an algorithm is proposed.
Methods: A pubmed search was conducted for studies on follow-up urodynamics in patients with neurogenic bladder. Additional search was made of secondary sources including reviews and guidelines.
Results: The need for follow-up urodynamics should be considered in all patients undergoing an initial assessment and weighed against the risks. Existing guidelines, while unanimous in their recommendation of its utilization, give scant details regarding its incorporation in clinical management. Follow-up urodynamics can document efficacy and identify the need for escalation of therapy in patients on intermittent catheterization and antimuscarinics. Patients with spinal injury, spinal dysraphism and anorectal malformations are at higher risk for upper tract damage. Follow-up urodynamics can help identify patients suitable for intravesical botulinum and mark those destined for failure. Patients undergoing augmentation cystoplasty may be candidates for less aggressive urodynamic follow-up.
Conclusions: Neurogenic bladder is managed by a broad cross-section of physicians. Clear recommendations and a management algorithm are important for improving patient care. Follow-up urodynamics can identify patients at risk, prevent renal dysfunction and improve the quality of life. There is an urgent need for more evidence on this important subject.
Introduction: Ureteral endometriosis is a rare disease affecting women of childbearing age which presents with nonspecific symptoms and it may result in severe morbidity. The aim of this study was to review evidence about incidence, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of ureteral endometriosis.
Materials and Methods: PubMed Central database was searched to identify studies reporting cases of ureteral endometriosis. “Ureter” or “Ureteral” and “Endometriosis” were used as key words. Database was searched for articles published since 1996, in English without restrictions regarding the study design.
Results: From 420 studies obtained through database search, 104 articles were finally included in this review, including a total of 1384 patients with ureteral endometriosis. Data regarding age, location, pathological findings, and interventions were extracted. Mean patients' age was 38.6 years, whereas the therapeutic arsenal included hormonal, endoscopic, and/or surgical treatment.
Conclusions: Ureteral endometriosis represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the clinicians and high clinical suspicion is needed to identify it.
Introduction: High relapse rate of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is a major challenge. Overexpression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) which targets phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a gene associated with malignancy, has been reported in the bladder tumor tissue compared to normal mucosa by us and others. We have tested whether miR-21 levels in bladder mucosa could predict tumor recurrence.
Methods: In a prospective cohort setting, tumor tissues and normal bladder mucosa (NBM) were taken from BC patients during transurethral resection of bladder tumor. Age- and ethnicity-matched NBM from benign prostate hyperplasia patients was taken as controls. The expression of miR-21 was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Patients were followed for 4 years for tumor reoccurrence. Postoperative recurrence were recorded and calculated by Kaplan–Meier curve.
Results: In 31 patients, miR-21 was up-regulated (>4-fold, P = 0.003), and PTEN levels were significantly lower (<7-folds, P = 0.001) in tumor tissue relative to NBM. Moreover, the fold change in miR-21 levels was significantly higher (>3-folds, P = 0.03) in patients showing recurrence compared to those in which tumor did not recur. Further, Kaplan–Meier analysis shows overexpression of miR-21 corresponds to less time to recurrence with higher cumulative hazard.
Conclusion: We found overexpression of miR-21 in tumor tissue and its association with recurrence, time to recurrence and invasiveness in BC. Quantification of miR-21 along with other pathological parameters could be more objective molecular approach to predict recurrence in NMIBC.
Introduction: Fetuin-A is a glycoprotein secreted by liver and has been shown to inhibit extraosseous mineralization. Urolithiasis may be a manifestation in the urinary tract due to fetuin deficiency in urine. The objective of this study was to compare the 24-h urine and serum fetuin-A levels of patients with and without urolithiasis.
Methods: Serum and 24-h urine fetuin-A levels were measured in 41 patients with bilateral, multiple, or recurrent urinary tract calculi (Group A) and 41 matched controls with no calculi (Group B). Fetuin levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Serum and urine fetuin-A levels in the two groups were compared.
Results: The median (range) 24-h urine fetuin-A value in Group A was 11.9 (1.12–221) mg/day and in Group B was 37.7 (1.28–125) mg/day. This difference was statistically significant (Mann–Whitney test, P = 0.0169). The median (range) serum fetuin-A in Group A was 0.67 (0.05–2.68) g/L and in Group B was 0.99 (0.01–5.5) g/L. The difference between serum values in the two arms was not statistically significant (Mann–Whitney test, P = 0.1817). However, the serum creatinine-adjusted mean log serum fetuin and urine fetuin were significantly different in the two arms (P = 0.003). The mean ± standard deviation (range) serum creatinine in Group A was 0.98 ± 0.25 (0.56–1.58) mg% and in Group B was 0.83 ± 0.16 (0.58–1.18) mg% (two sample t-test, P = 0.0031).
Conclusions: Patients with urolithiasis have lower urine fetuin-A and creatinine-adjusted serum fetuin-A levels.
Introduction: Filarial chyluria is a frequent problem in India. While endoscopic therapy is the mainstay of treatment, it is not always successful. We aimed to determine parameters that affect outcomes of endoscopic sclerotherapy for filarial chyluria (FC).
Methods: Prospectively maintained data of FC patients who received endoscopic sclerotherapy between June 2011 and March 2015 were analyzed. Sclerotherapy included either povidone-iodine (0.1%) or silver nitrate (1%). The parameters recorded included clinical evaluation, urinary triglyceride (TG)/cholesterol, sclerotherapy treatment, and follow-up.
Results: One hundred and fifty-seven patients (male: female, 104:53) with a mean age (± standard deviation [SD]) 41.12 ± 13.68 years underwent endoscopic sclerotherapy. Grade II (68.88%) chyluria was a most common presentation followed by Grade III (25.69%). One hundred and forty-four patients responded whereas six patients failed to respond; another seven were lost to follow up, and twenty patients had recurrence. Overall success rate was 86.11%. Baseline urinary TG (mean ± SD) between success and recurrence group was 195.51 ± 164.73 mg/dl and 652.65 ± 62.55 mg/dl and cholesterol (mean ± SD) was 16.99 ± 10.08 mg/dl and 89.07 ± 39.87 mg/dl, respectively. Patient with urinary TGs >300 mg/dl and urinary cholesterol >30 mg/dl had 3.2 and 1.3 times higher chance to have recurrence after endoscopic sclerotherapy, respectively. Choice of sclerosing agent (silver nitrate 1% versus povidone-iodine 0.1%) had no difference in success rate, but silver nitrate had slightly higher complications rate (25% vs. 20%). A higher number of instillations (>3) was associated with better success rate. Majority of the complications were either Clavien Grade 1 or 2.
Conclusions: The factors predicting recurrence were higher clinical grade, higher number of pretreatment courses, and high urinary TG and cholesterol.
Introduction: Although the use of a stopwatch is recommended to record intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) for premature ejaculation, there is no Indian literature which assesses the reliability of this method among our patients. Hence, we assessed the accuracy of stopwatch-measured IELT and compared it with other methods such as number of thrusts and self-assessed IELT in an Indian context.
Methods: Between January 2015 and December 2015, couples with premature ejaculation (PE) confirmed with the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool were enrolled in this study. They were asked to report self-assessed IELT for the first 2 weeks, number of thrusts before ejaculation following vaginal penetration for the next 2 weeks, and stopwatch-clocked IELT for the last 2 weeks. At each 2-week interval, the couples answered erectile/ejaculatory performance anxiety index questionnaire (EPAI). The data were analyzed at the end of 6 weeks.
Results: A total of 42 couples with an average married life of 5.53 years were included in the study. Average stopwatch-clocked IELT was almost 1 min more than the self-reported IELT, which was statistically significant. The average number of thrusts reported was 6.31. Anxiety on the EPAI scale was maximum while using stopwatch to measure IELT.
Conclusion: Use of stopwatch to clock the IELT does not appear to represent true IELT in Indian patients. Self-assessed IELT correlated more accurately with symptoms of PE.
Introduction: We aimed to evaluate the surgical feasibility, complication, and oncological outcome of robot-assisted retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RA-RPLND) in patients of testicular tumor with postchemotherapy residual retroperitoneal mass.
Methods: A total of 13 patients underwent RA-RPLND between January 2012 and September 2016 at our institute. A study was started on December 2015, so data were collected retrospectively and prospectively regarding patient demography, tumor characteristics, surgical, pathological outcome, and oncological outcome.
Results: RA-RPLND was successfully completed in all the 13 patients. Lateral approach was used in initial 12 patients with unilateral dissection in 11 patients and bilateral dissection after in 1 patient after repositioning in bilateral position. Supine robotic approach used in 1 patient. Median operative time was 200 min, median estimated blood loss was 120 ml, and median length of hospital stay was 4 days. The median yield of lymph node was 20. Three patients had positive lymph nodes, all had teratoma germ cell tumor. Ten patients had only necrosis in lymph nodes. After median follow-up 23 months (range 3-58 months), no systemic or retroperitoneal recurrence was found. Four patients developed chyle leak. One patient was managed conservatively with diet modification, one with intranodal lipiodol lymphangiography and two patients were managed surgically.
Conclusion: RA-RPLND is safe and feasible for postchemotherapy residual mass with accepted compilation rate, but larger studies are required to establish its diagnostic and therapeutic utility along with safety of the procedure.
Introduction: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is an effective treatment for renal stones. Due to the significant pain and morbidity after standard PCNL because of nephrostomy tubes, various modifications of PCNL are being performed. We report a randomized trial comparing these modalities.
Materials and Methods: A total of 75 patients were randomized into three groups of 25 each: standard PCNL with nephrostomy tubes (Group 1), tubeless PCNL with ureteric stent and no nephrostomy (Group 2), and totally tubeless PCNL without ureteric catheter or nephrostomy (Group 3). Randomization was done at the end of the procedure for those patients satisfying the inclusion criteria based on duration of surgery, single puncture tract, intraoperative bleeding, stone burden, intact pelvicalyceal system, and no residual stones at the end of procedure. The outcomes measured were hemoglobin (Hb) drop, hemorrhage, need for blood transfusion, pyrexia, urine leak, pain score, analgesic requirement, and duration of hospital stay.
Results: There was no significant difference in hemorrhage, Hb drop, need for blood transfusion, and postoperative pyrexia among the groups. All patients except one in the standard group only had variable amount of urinary leak. The analgesic requirement and duration of hospital stay attained statistical significance in favor of tubeless and totally tubeless groups compared to the standard.
Conclusions: Tubeless and totally tubeless PCNL are safe and effective method of renal stone management. Totally tubeless PCNL significantly reduced postoperative pain and morbidity compared to the tubeless method.
Objective: The megameatus variant of anterior hypospadias with an intact complete foreskin occurs in approximately 1%–3% of hypospadias. Hence, the objective of the study was to evaluate the results of tubularized urethral plate urethroplasty (TUPU) in megameatus intact prepuce (MIP).
Materials and Methods: A retrospective study (June 1996–June 2015) of MIP from our hypospadias registry was conducted. All patients with megameatus, either with an intact prepuce or with one previously removed, were included in the study. Case sheets of clinical records, investigations, clinical photographs, and videos were reviewed. Patients were classified into, glanular, coronal, subcoronal, and distal penile. TUPU were done. Patients were called for follow-up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, and then yearly for the assessment of the cosmetic appearance and fistula, meatal stenosis, or other complications.
Results: Of 1026 patients with hypospadias, we identified 13 cases of megameatus variant of hypospadias; three of the 13 had been circumcized previously. Glanular approximation was done for the one patients of the glanular variant, and another had frenuloplasty. These two patients were excluded from the study. Incision in the inner preputial skin was closed in 10 patients to have an intact prepuce. Follow-up period varied from 6 months to 4 years (median follow-up 2½ years). None of the patients developed complications such as fistula, meatal stenosis, and/or wound dehiscence.
Conclusions: Surgical correction of MIP in the era of increased cosmetic awareness is justified. Excellent results are obtained with TUPU and along with spongioplasty and frenuloplasty because of availability of wide urethral plate and well-developed spongiosum in these patients. TUPU should be the preferred procedure in cases of MIP.
Introduction: A precise puncture of the renal collecting system is the most essential step for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). There are many techniques describing this crucial first step in PCNL including the bull's eye technique, triangulation technique, free-hand technique, and gradual descensus technique. We describe a novel puncture guide to assist accurate percutaneous needle placement during bull's eye technique.
Methods: The mini access guide (MAG) stabilizes the initial puncture needle by mounting it on an adjustable multidirectional carrier fixed to the patient's skin, which aids in achieving the “bull's eye” puncture. It also avoids a direct fluoroscopic exposure of the urologist's hand during the puncture. Sixty consecutive patients with solitary renal calculus were randomized to traditional hand versus MAG puncture during bull's eye technique of puncture and the fluoroscopy time was assessed.
Results: The median fluoroscopy screening time for traditional free-hand bull's eye and MAG-guided bull's eye puncture (fluoroscopic screening time for puncture) was 55 versus 21 s (P = 0.001) and the median time to puncture was 80 versus 55 s (P = 0.052), respectively. Novice residents also learned puncture technique faster with MAG on simulator.
Conclusion: The MAG is a simple, portable, cheap, and novel assistant to achieve successful PCNL puncture. It would be of great help for novices to establish access during their learning phase of PCNL. It would also be an asset toward significantly decreasing the radiation dose during PCNL access.
Carcinomatous polyarthritis (CP) is a rare paraneoplastic disorder which can be associated with various solid tumors and can even precede detection of the underlying malignancy. A 54-year-old male presented with migratory asymmetric inflammatory polyarthritis and high-grade fever for 6 months. On evaluation, he was diagnosed to have renal cell carcinoma (RCC). CP as an initial presentation of RCC was not described previously.
Genitourinary tuberculosis contributes to 10%–14% of extrapulmonary TB. Prostate tuberculosis is rare and usually found incidentally following transurethral resection of the prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia. We report a case of an immunocompetent patient with pyrexia of unknown origin, on evaluation with whole-body 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography scan found to have suspicious prostatic primary, with hypermetabolic abnormalities involving the brain. Histopathological diagnosis was established as multifocal tuberculosis involving prostate, meninges, and intracranial tuberculomas.
HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a pathological state of the kidneys due to longstanding, uncontrolled HIV infection. With the rapid progression of HIVAN to end-stage kidney failure, there is a significant potential for renal transplantation to improve the quality of life in these patients. Numerous studies have been recently published documenting renal transplantation as a primary treatment for HIVAN. With the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, allograft and patient survival rates of HIV-infected persons are nearly identical to those who are HIV negative. Our case study documents the successful role of renal transplantation in treating HIVAN in a 9-year-old male child.
A 59-year-old male with a history of nonobstructive coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and prostate cancer presented to the hospital with 1-day history of pleuritic chest pain. Initial workup for acute coronary event was unremarkable. Chest X-ray revealed multiple small radial densities which were linear and hyperdense, consistent with embolization of metallic seeds to the pulmonary circulation. The patient was noted to have had radioactive metallic seeds implanted for prostate cancer 6 months ago. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolization of prostatic seeds is challenging as they frequently present with chest pain mimicking acute coronary syndromes.
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