Robot-assistance is being increasingly used for radical cystectomy (RC). Fifteen years of surgical evolution might be considered a short period for a radical procedure to be established as the treatment of choice, but robot assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) is showing promising results when compared with the current gold standard, open RC (ORC). In this review, we describe the current status of RARC and continue the discussion on the on-going RARC versus ORC debate.
Robot-assistance is increasingly used in surgical practice. We performed a nonsystematic literature review using PubMed/MEDLINE and Google for robotic surgical systems and compiled information on their current status. We also used this information to predict future about the direction of robotic systems based on various robotic systems currently being developed. Currently, various modifications are being made in the consoles, robotic arms, cameras, handles and instruments, and other specific functions (haptic feedback and eye tracking) that make up the robotic surgery system. In addition, research for automated surgery is actively being carried out. The development of future robots will be directed to decrease the number of incisions and improve precision. With the advent of artificial intelligence, a more practical form of robotic surgery system can be introduced and will ultimately lead to the development of automated robotic surgery system.
Introduction: Open radical cystectomy (RC) is associated with significant morbidity and the role of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in reducing morbidity of RC is controversial A direct comparison of various surgical modalities on perioperative outcomes is lacking in the Indian literature. We evaluated outcomes of minimally invasive (robotic and laparoscopic) versus open RC with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) performed at our institute from 2014 to 2016.
Methods: Eighty-three patients of RC with PLND were prospectively analyzed from December 2014 to February 2016. All patients of muscle invasive urothelial cancer of the bladder undergoing RC (open or MIS) were included in the study. Based on patients preference they were assigned to one of the three groups (Open RC, robot-assisted RC, or laparoscopic RC). Their demographic profile, preoperative disease stage, operative data like operative time, blood loss, intraoperative complications, histopathological data like pathological stage, lymph-node yield etc., postoperative complications if any and total duration of stay were recorded. These data of laparoscopic, open, and robotic cystectomies were compared in terms of various demographic, histopathologic parameters and perioperative outcomes.
Results: Twenty-nine patients (34.93%) underwent minimally invasive RC with PLND (5 laparoscopic and 24 robotic). The median age of patients was 58 years. Mean number of lymph nodes removed was 22.5 ± 14.6. The total number of lymph nodes removed in laparoscopic surgery was 104 with a yield of 20.6 per patient, in robotic surgery were 627 with a yield of 26.1 per patient, and in open surgery were 1119 with a yield of 20.7 per patient (P = 0.004). Clavien-Dindo Grade 2 and 3 complications were seen in 37.5% of robotic, 60% of laparoscopic, and 55.54% of open RC. Average blood loss and operative time in laparoscopic, robotic, and open RC were 511.53 ± 311.02 ml, 552.08 ± 267.63 ml, and 512.05 ± 213.9 ml and 8.23 ± 1.36 h (hrs), 7.53 ± 1.92 h, and 5.85 ± 1.76 h, respectively (P = 0.68 and <0.001, respectively).
Conclusions: MIS is associated with significantly longer operative time than open RC. Robotic RC has significantly higher lymph node yield than open or laparoscopic RC. Minimally invasive RC is equivalent to open surgery in terms of perioperative morbidity, mortality, and blood loss.
Introduction: Open radical cystectomy (ORC) is the most common surgical approach for invasive carcinoma of the urinary bladder, but robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) has recently gained popularity. There is limited data from the Indian subcontinent on RARC . The aim of this study was to assess the perioperative, pathological, and oncological outcomes of RARC and follow-up in our initial 63 cases.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained data of 63 RARC procedures performed in our tertiary care institute from July 2006 to January 2016 was done. All patients underwent RARC with extracorporeal urinary diversion. We analyzed perioperative parameters, length of hospital stay, pathological and oncological outcomes, and rate of complications. Follow-up data were analyzed for disease recurrence and survival.
Results: The mean age of the patients was 58 years. The mean American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score was 1.66. Mean operative time was 348.6 min and mean blood loss was 868.2 ml. Mean hospital stay was 10.4 days (±5.4 days). 42.8% patients had pT2 disease, 49.2% pT3, 1.58% pT1, and 6.34% had pT4 disease. Mean lymph node yield was 12.4 (3-25). One patient had positive surgical margins. Twenty-four patients had postoperative complications of which four were major complications (Clavien-Dindo 3 or higher). At a median follow-up of 60 months (range: 3–108 months), 11 patients were lost to follow-up 10 patients developed metastasis, out of which 4 died. Four had recurrence, two died and two are receiving chemotherapy.
Conclusion: This study shows the feasibility and safety of RARC. The operative time, blood loss, return of bowel activity and hospital stay were higher than those reported in the literature but may reflect the learning curve.
Introduction: There is limited data on the efficacy of sequential targeted therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) beyond the second line, especially for Asian patients. We evaluated the efficacy and side effects of targeted therapy beyond the second line.
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 69 patients who were administered targeted therapy for mRCC at our institution between 2008 and 2016. Sunitinib, pazopanib, sorafenib, axitinib, everolimus, and temsirolimus were available in Japan in 2016, and treatment had been conducted with those six agents. Twenty-four patients underwent therapy beyond the second line. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. In addition, a survey on patients' attitudes toward cancer treatment was conducted. Twenty-five of the 69 patients responded to the question with their opinions on the continuation of treatment after standard therapy failure.
Results: The median PFS was 7.6 and 2.5 months for third- and fourth-line therapy. The median OS calculated from the initiation of third-line therapy was 14.2 months. The rates of serious toxicities with third- and fourth-line regimens were not markedly increased compared with first- and second-line therapies. Forty percent of patients hoped to continue treatment after exhausting standard care.
Conclusions: Our retrospective study indicates the efficacy and safety of third- and fourth-line targeted therapies. In addition to the efficacy, a patient can also influence treatment continuation.
Introduction: Kocak described a modification of Clavien-Dindo classification system (CDCS) for reporting procedure-related complications in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN). We used the Kocak modification in grading and reporting the severity of complications in patients who underwent LDN and in evaluating various parameters that predict them.
Methods: In all, 1430 patients who underwent left LDN from 2000 to 2016 were included in this study. All data was retrospectively collected and analyzed for complications occurring in the postoperative period. All complications were classified according to the four grades of Kocak-modified CDCS.
Results: 124 patients (8.6%) suffered a total of 235 postoperative complications. Most of the complications were Grade I and Grade II (Grade I: 79.5% [n = 187] and Grade II 16.2% [n = 38]), 2.5% of the complications were Grade III (n = 6) and Kocak Grade IVa complications occurred in three patients. There was one death (Grade IVb: 0.4%, overall mortality rate: 0.06%). The incidence of complications was significantly greater for male patients, those with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, and if the operating surgeon had ≤ 1 year of experience in performing LDN surgery.
Conclusion: LDN is a safe procedure with low morbidity. The rate of complications is 8.6% and most of these complications are of low grade. The use of a standardized system for reporting the complications of LDN allows appropriate comparison between reported data.
Introduction: Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is a recognized option for the surgical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. While the laser parameters and enucleation techniques have been widely studied, the morcellation techniques still remain under-evaluated. The current study evaluates the two commonly used morcellation devices for their in vivo efficiency and patient safety.
Materials and Methods: A total of 222 patients who underwent HoLEP at two medical centres between January 2011 to December 2013 by a single surgeon were included. Of these 222 patients, the Richard Wolf Piranha Morcellation System, Germany (WM), was used on 140 patients, while on the remaining 82, the Lumenis® VersaCut™ Morcellator, Yokneam, Israel (LM), was used. These devices were compared for safety parameters such as the incidence of bladder mucosal injury, deep muscle injury, bladder perforation, and bleeding requiring electrocoagulation. The morcellation efficiency (ME) defined as the ratio of the weight of morcellated tissue in grams to the time required for morcellation in minutes was also compared.
Results: The incidence of bladder mucosal injury, deep muscle injury, and bleeding requiring electrocoagulation was statistically significantly lower for the WM than the LM. None of the patients had a full-thickness bladder perforation with either of the morcellators. The ME was higher for the LM. In eight patients, hard, smooth rounded adenomatous nodules could not be morcellated by the WM and had to be crushed by a stone grasping forceps before morcellation.
Conclusions: While the LM is a faster morcellator, WM has a better safety profile.
Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of urinary stones and pattern of changes according to the patient's age in Northwestern Rajasthan using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.
Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 1005 urolithiasis patients was carried out in two tertiary care centers from September 2012 to September 2016. Chemical composition of urinary stones was analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy, and a subgroup study based on the patient's age was done (8–12 years – Group A, 13–18 years – Group B, and >18 years – Group C).
Results: Out of 1005 patients, 59 were in Group A, 104 in Group B, and 842 in Group C. Male predominance was found in all age groups. Mixed composition stones were much more common than pure one (74.83% vs. 25.17%). Overall, combination of calcium oxalate monohydrate with dihydrate was the most common composition (58.0%). Calcium oxalate was the predominant chemical composition in 91.54% of stones, followed by uric acid in 4.28%, struvite in 2.29%, calcium phosphate in 1.49%, and cystine in 0.4%. The proportion of calcium oxalate stone was increasing while that of struvite, uric acid, and cystine stone was decreasing with age. Most of the vesical calculi in pediatric age group (Group A; 8–12 years) patients were made up of combination of struvite, calcium phosphate, and uric acid. A total of 85.11% of staghorn calculi were of oxalates.
Conclusion: In Northwestern Rajasthan, calcium oxalate is the most common composition of urinary stones in all age groups. Mixed stones are more common than pure ones. The incidence of calcium oxalate stone increases while that of struvite, uric acid, and cystine stone decreases with age.
Congenital short patulous urethra is a rare entity and may be associated with developmental anomalies of mullerian ducts or urogenital sinus. We report the management of two cases of congenital short patulous urethra with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Both the patients presented with SUI; one was diagnosed with Mayer–Rokitansky–Kuster–Hauser (MRKH) syndrome and the other had uterus didelphys with longitudinally septated vagina. Both patients were successfully managed by excisional tapering of the urethra and pubovaginal sling placement. SUI with congenital short patulous urethra can be managed with excisional tapering of urethra and pubovaginal sling placement.
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare and aggressive subtype of B-cell lymphoma, which occurs typically in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. We report a case of a 44-year-old HIV-positive patient with a solitary polypoid mass of the left ureteropelvic junction, causing unilateral hydronephrosis and clinically mimicking urothelial carcinoma. A laparoscopic nephroureterectomy was performed, and pathological examinations revealed the mass as PBL. PBL can present in various forms, even as a polypoid mass of the upper urinary tract, and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any mass detected in the HIV-positive patients.
Microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a known premalignant lesion of carcinoma cervix. It is also reported from other sites such as the oral cavity, larynx, and vulva. Microinvasive SCC is very rarely reported from the penis. We report the occurrence of microinvasive SCC in a long-standing erythematous lesion of glans penis in a patient, with extensive metastasis. We emphasize the need for awareness among patients and urologists about the premalignant lesions of penis and prompt treatment of such lesions to prevent possible spread of the disease.
Spirometra is a genus of pseudophyllidean cestode that reproduces in canines and felines but can cause pathology in humans. When humans harbour plerocercoids of these tapeworms outside the intestine, it can cause sparganosis. We report a case of urinary sparganosis in a young woman, passing multiple spargana worms in her urine. The worm was identified as the plerocercoid larvae of Spirometra spp., and the case was managed successfully.
A 42-year old male patient presented with the complaints of right lumbar pain, high-grade fever, burning micturition and pyuria for past 4 days. He was diagnosed with a liver abscess which had ruptured into the superior pole of right kidney.
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