The management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) continues to be a therapeutic challenge; however, the options for systemic therapy in this setting have exploded over the past 20 years. From the advent of toxic cytokine therapy to the subsequent discovery of targeted therapy (TT) and immune checkpoint inhibitors, the landscape of viable treatment options continues to progress. With the arrival of cytokine therapy, two randomized trials demonstrated a survival benefit for upfront cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) plus interferon therapy and this approach became the standard for surgical candidates. However, it was difficult to establish the role and the timing of CN with the subsequent advent of TT, just a few years later. More recently, two randomized phase III studies completed in the TT era questioned the use of CN and brought to light the role of risk stratification while selecting patients for CN. Careful identification of the mRCC patients who are likely to have a rapid progression of the disease is essential, as these patients need prompt systemic therapy. With the continued advancement of systemic therapy using the immune checkpoint inhibitors as a first line therapy, the role of CN will continue to evolve.
Overdiagnosis and overtreatment are well known problems in prostate cancer (PCa). The transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) Guided biopsy (GB) as a current gold standard investigation has a low positive detection rate resulting in unnecessary biopsies. The choice of optimal biopsy strategy needs to be defined. Therefore, we undertook a Bayesian network meta analysis (NMA) and Bayesian prediction in the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) model to present a method for optimizing biopsy strategy in PCa. Twenty eight relevant studies were retrieved through online databases of EMBASE, MEDLINE, and CENTRAL up to February 2020. Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation and Surface Under the Cumulative RAnking curve were used to calculate the rank probability using odds ratio with 95% credible interval. HSROC model was used to formulate the predicted true sensitivity and specificity of each biopsy strategy. Six different PCa biopsy strategies including transrectal ultrasound GB (TRUS GB), fusion GB (FUS GB), fusion + transrectal ultrasound GB (FUS + TRUS GB), magnetic resonance imaging GB (MRI GB), transperineal ultrasound GB (TPUS GB), and contrast enhanced ultrasound GB were analyzed in this study with a total of 7584 patients. These strategies were analyzed on five outcomes including detection rate of overall PCa, clinically significant PCa, insignificant PCa, complication rate, and HSROC. The rank probability showed that the overall PCa detection rate was higher in FUS + TRUS GB, MRI GB, and FUS GB. In terms of clinically significant PCa detection, FUS + TRUS GB and FUS GB had a relatively higher clinically significant PCa detection rate, whereas TRUS GB had a relatively lower rate for clinically significant PCa detection rate. MRI GB (91% and 81%) and FUS GB (82% and 83%) had the highest predicted true sensitivity and specificity, respectively, whereas TRUS GB (62% and 83%) had a lower predicted true sensitivity and specificity. MRI GB, FUS GB, and FUS + TRUS GB were associated with lower complication rate, whereas TPUS GB and TRUS GB were more associated with higher complication rate. This NMA and HSROC model highlight the important finding that FUS + TRUS GB, FUS GB, and MRI GB were superior compared with other strategies to avoid the overdiagnosis and overtreatment of PCa. FUS GB, MRI GB, and FUS + TRUS GB had lower complication rates. These results may assist in shared decision making between patients, carers, and their surgeons.
With the rapid expansion of robotic platforms in urology, there is an urgent and unmet need to review its cost and benefits in comparison to the traditional laparoscopy, especially in reference to a developing country. A nonsystematic review of the literature was conducted to compare the outcomes of pure laparoscopic and robot-assisted urologic procedures. Available literature over the past 30 years was reviewed. Robot-assisted surgery and laparoscopy were found to have similar outcomes in the areas of radical prostatectomy, partial and radical nephrectomy, radical cystectomy, retroperitoneal lymph node (LN) dissection, inguinal LN dissection, donor nephrectomy, and kidney transplantation. Robot-assisted surgery was found to be significantly costlier than pure laparoscopy. In the absence of a clear advantage of robot-assisted surgery over pure laparoscopy, lack of widespread availability and the currently prohibitive cost of robotic technology, laparoscopic urological surgery has a definite role in the developing world.
Introduction: Open ureteral reimplant has been the gold standard for management of lower ureteric strictures. With the widespread acceptance of robotic surgery, robotic-assisted laparoscopic ureteral reimplant (RALUR) is becoming the preferred choice for performing ureteral reimplant. We present our single-institution and single-surgeon experience of performing RALUR.
Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 40 patients who underwent RALUR at our institute in the last 5 years. Demographic data were recorded along with presenting complaint and diagnosis. Intraoperative variables included operative and docking time, blood loss, intraoperative complications, technique, and procedure performed. Postoperative data that were analyzed included complications, hospital stay, and outcomes. Patient satisfaction score was calculated using a numerical scale of points 1–6.
Results: The mean age of patients was 31.5 ± 9.8 years (r = 4–45). Male: female ratio was 3:5. The most common presenting symptom was flank pain, and the most common etiology was iatrogenic strictures in adults and congenital vesicoureteral reflux in children. The mean operative time and blood loss were 135.3 ± 45.1 min (r = 84–221) and 67.7 ± 31.4 ml (r = 32–118), respectively. There were no intraoperative complications and nil conversion to open surgery. The mean length of hospital stay was 4.5 ± 2.3 days (r = 3–9). Radiographic success was achieved in 41 out of 44 ureters. Eighty-five percent of the patients were completely satisfied with robotic approach and its outcomes.
Conclusion: RALUR is a minimally invasive, safe, feasible, less morbid technique with good outcome.
Introduction: There are very few studies in the literature describing retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in preschool children. We have evaluated the feasibility, stone-free rate, and complications of RIRS in children <5 years of age.
Methods: All children <5 years of age and stone size <2 cm (renal/proximal ureteric), who underwent RIRS at our hospital from February 2010 to May 2020 were included in this retrospective study. All children were prestented for the passive dilatation of ureter. A 7.5 Fr flexible ureterorenoscope was introduced over the ureteral access sheath (UAS) or over a guidewire. At 2 weeks, the stent was removed and at 2 months the child was evaluated for residual stones.
Results: A total of 62 children with 67 renal units met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 42.11 months (4–60 months). Mean weight was 13.31 kg (6–16.3 kg). Mean stone size was 11.9 mm (7.3–18.2 mm). Majority of the stones were in pelvis (37.8%). UAS 9.5/11.5 Fr was placed in 40 (63.5%) children. Mean operative time was 55.2 min; mean hospitalization was 61 h. Four out of the 67 renal units (5.9%) required conversion to minipercutaneous nephrolithotomy in the same sitting, due to access failure. Two cases who developed post-operative fever required a change of antibiotics. Two cases required ureteroscopy for steinstrasse postoperatively. Stone-free rate at 2 months for stones size =2 mm was 76.3%.
Conclusion: Pediatric RIRS is a promising option in young children as it offers acceptable stone-free rates and a low incidence of high-grade complications. However, it requires expertise and should be offered in tertiary care centres.
Introduction: The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of tubeless mini- percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for the treatment of large (>20 mm) renal stones.
Patients and Methods: This study included consecutive patients who underwent single-session tubeless mini-PCNL (tract size 16–20 F) for large (>20 mm) renal stones. Stone-free status meant complete clearance or residual fragments <4 mm. Complications were recorded and classified according to modified Clavien-Dindo classifications. Risk variables for significant residuals were determined with univariate (Chi-square and t-test) and multivariate logistic regression analyses.
Results: Between July 2015 and November 2018, 225 patients were included. The mean age was 42.9 years; the mean stone size was 30.2 ± 9.6 mm and 75% of patients were males. A single renal stone was present in 54 patients (24%), multiple stones in 108 (48%), and staghorn stones in 63 (28%). The stone-free rate was 87.6%. The complication rate was 8.4% (Grade I–II in 7.5%, III in 0.9%). Three patients (1.3%) required blood transfusion. Independent risk factor for significant residual fragments was the presence of stones in multiple sites inside the pelvicalyceal system (relative risk: 13.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.78–101.43, P = 0.012).
Conclusions: Mini-PCNL is an effective and safe treatment option for patients with large renal stones (>20 mm). Stones located in multiple sites is the only predictor of significant residual stones.
Introduction: Optimal patient selection plays a vital role in management of renal tumors with the introduction of nephron-sparing approaches and active surveillance. A reliable and accurate diagnostic biomarker will be a useful adjunct to decision-making. We studied the diagnostic accuracy of urinary aquaporin-1 (uAQP-1), an upcoming urinary biomarker, for renal cell carcinoma.
Materials and Methods: In this prospective biomarker study, urine samples were obtained preoperatively from 36 patients with an imaged renal mass suggestive of RCC and 24 healthy age-matched controls, chosen from among voluntary kidney donors. uAQP-1 concentrations were estimated with a sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and normalized by estimation of urinary creatinine. The Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare differences between any two groups. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to analyze the diagnostic accuracy of uAQP-1 for RCC.
Results: The median uAQP-1 concentration among the cases and controls was 8.78 ng/mg creatinine (interquartile range [IQR]: 5.56–12.67) and 9.52 ng/mg creatinine (IQR: 5.55–12.45), respectively. There was no significant difference in uAQP-1 concentrations between the two groups. ROC analysis showed that, for a cutoff value of 8 ng/mg creatinine, the sensitivity and specificity of uAQP-1 as a diagnostic test were 47.2% and 66.7%, respectively, and area under the curve was 0.52 (95% confidence interval: 0.42–0.62).
Conclusions: uAQP-1 concentrations did not discriminate between healthy individuals and patients with RCC. The results of this study suggest that uAQP-1 may not be a suitable diagnostic biomarker for RCC in the study population.
Introduction: The aim of our study was to develop a new Indian nomogram to estimate pathologic extracapsular extension (ECE) risk in prostate cancer, by including PI-RADS v1-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ECE risk score to the clinical variables used in the Partin nomogram (PN).
Materials and Methods: We analyzed 273 patients who underwent MRI of prostate and radical prostatectomy (RP). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of ECE. We calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for three variables used in PN and MRI ECE risk score, and a new nomogram was designed using binary logistic regression. Calibration curves assessed the agreement between the actual ECE risk and the predicted probability of the new nomogram.
Results: Out of 273 patients, 123 patients (45.1) had ECE on MRI, whereas 136 patients (49.8) had ECE on final pathology. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of MRI for predicting ECE were 76.6, 66.9, 70.0, 73.9, and 71.7 (confidence interval 95), respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that clinical T-stage (cT), Gleason score (GS), and MRI ECE risk score remained significant. The highest and the lowest values of the AUC for single variables were 0.748 (MRI ECE risk score) and 0.636 (cT stage), respectively, and AUC for PN was 0.67. New nomogram designed using R statistical package has higher predictive accuracy (0.826) compared to PN (0.67) and good calibration.
Conclusions: MRI adds incremental value to PN. A new Indian nomogram can help in the decision-making process of nerve-sparing RP. This nomogram should be used with caution as validation is pending and will require further studies.
Introduction: Whole-body bone scintigraphy (WBBS) is considered to be the standard of care in the initial skeletal evaluation of patients with carcinoma prostate. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a potential alternative technique for detecting bone metastasis. The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of WBBS with a single-photon emission computed tomography–computed tomography (SPECT-CT) correlation of the suspicious WBBS lesions to the axial skeleton (AS)-MRI in diagnosing bone metastasis in patients with carcinoma prostate.
Methods: WBBS and AS-MRI were both performed during the initial skeletal evaluation in 35 patients of carcinoma prostate with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the range of 10–50 ng/ml. Suspicious lesions on the WBBS were correlated on SPECT CT. The presence or absence of metastasis was determined by best valuable comparator. The validity parameters of WBBS and AS-MRI were computed and compared.
Results: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of WBBS and AS-MRI for detecting patients with bone metastasis were 55.6%, 88.5%, 62.5%, 85.2% and 100.0%, 96.2%, 90.0%, 100%, respectively. The kappa value and the accuracy of WBBS were 0.457 and 80.0%, respectively. The kappa value and accuracy of AS-MRI were 0.928 and 97.1%, respectively.
Conclusions: The diagnostic performance of AS-MRI in detecting patients with bone metastasis due to carcinoma prostate is superior to that of WBBS with SPECT-CT correlation of the suspicious lesions in the PSA range of 10–50 ng/ml.
Urethral duplication (UD) in a female is a rare congenital anomaly. Although UD is commonly associated with other congenital anomalies of the urinary tract, its association with congenital megacystis with obstructive megaureter has not yet been reported. We present the case of a 9 year old girl child with complete sagittal duplication of the urethra associated with congenital megacystis and left obstructive megaureter.
The health-care sector has been drastically overwhelmed in the wake of prevailing COVID-19 pandemic, hampering elective and emergency medical services alike. The geriatric population is especially affected in this regard as they are the ones who need access to health care services the most, and unfortunately, they are the ones with the highest risk of cross infection and mortality with SARS-COV-2. Lockdown and public restrictions have made the accessibility even harder. Telemedicine has emerged as a useful tool that avoids the risk of cross infection during the face-to-face consultation. Numerous guidelines have been made regarding the implementation of teleconsultations during this pandemic. Through this report, we describe the “beyond guidelines” emergency management of paraphimosis in an aged, bedridden male with comorbidities, through teleconsultation amid the COVID-19 pandemic.
Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)/Ewing's sarcoma tumors are a group of highly malignant tumors composed of small, round cells showing neuroectodermal differentiation that commonly affects soft tissue and bone. PNET involving the genitourinary system is rare and PNET of the penile urethra is rarer still. It exhibits a highly aggressive biological behavior with poor prognosis. We report a case of a 27-year-old male presenting with penile swelling and difficulty in passing urine. Examination revealed a firm penile urethral mass. Pathological and immunohistochemical results of the specimen obtained from urethroscopic biopsy followed by total penectomy confirmed the diagnosis of PNET of the urethra. He received combination chemotherapy: ifosfamide and etoposide (IE) + vincristine, Adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide (VAC). In conclusion, PNET has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of a penile urethral mass in young patients.
Hemophilia is a rare disorder that is difficult to diagnose and manage. The prevalence of end-stage renal disease is increasing in hemophilic patients because of improved life expectancy. Renal transplant surgery in such patients is often complicated by adverse hematological events such as bleeding and intravesical thrombosis, both with a risk of renal allograft rejection. We report a case of a 46-year-old hemophilia A patient on hemodialysis who underwent renal transplant and show that although challenging, renal transplant in hemophilic patients is possible.
Drug-induced priapism is well known and papaverine is the most common drug known to cause priapism. Drotaverine, an analog of papaverine, is used extensively to treat Colicky pain. We report the first case of drotaverine.induced priapism.
Centrally located completely endophytic renal hilar tumors pose a technical challenge, especially during a minimally invasive surgery. Relation of the tumor to the renal vasculature decides the approach. Tumors placed anterior to the vasculature can be approached in the anterior trans-hilar manner. However, tumors placed posterior to the vasculature need a posterior approach, which is quite a difficult maneuver during transperitoneal laparoscopy. Adequate exposure to access the resection plane is the key principle. We describe a laparoscopic technique for enucleation of such tumors, applying the surgical principle of radial nephrotomy in the intersegmental plane which is usually performed to remove renal stones.
Metastatic involvement of the urethra is a rare finding in patients with carcinoma prostate. The signs and symptoms overlap with those of a primary urethral malignancy. The diagnosis is made following a biopsy of the suspected lesions. We describe the case of a 66-year-old patient with carcinoma prostate who presented with penile pain, 18 months after the treatment with androgen deprivation therapy. Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography helped in the identification of the urethral and inguinal nodal metastasis, which was confirmed histologically. We also discuss the management of this unusual clinical scenario.
Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a life-threatening infection of kidney with the presence of gas in the renal parenchyma, collecting system, and the surrounding retroperitoneum. We present a case of EPN in a diabetic patient with extension of gas into the spinal epidural space of the lumbar vertebral canal. He was managed conservatively with minimally invasive intervention along with supportive medical management and recovered well.
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