Prostate cancer: An abiraterone ultraresponsive phenotype Researchers have identified a molecular signature in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patient-derived xenografts (PDX) that is associated with a tumour phenotype ultraresponsive to abiraterone.Abiraterone is a CYP17A1 inhibitor that blocks biosynthesis of androgens, and has been shown to improve survival in CRPC. However, some
Urothelial carcinoma: Targeting PD-1 in advanced disease Data from the KEYNOTE-012 phase Ib study demonstrate that pembrolizumab, an antibody targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), has antitumour activity and an acceptable safety profile in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma.Several antibodies targeting PD-1 or its ligands are being studied for the
Prostate cancer: Genomic drivers of BRCA2-mutant tumours Aggressiveness of localized prostate tumours with BRCA2 mutations is driven by specific genomic changes, resulting in a metastatic-like phenotype at diagnosis, according to a study published in Nature Communications.An association between germline BRCA2 mutation and prostate cancer risk is well known:
Infection: A new threat on the horizon — Zika virus and male fertility Amongst the many causes of male-factor infertility, a diagnosed viral cause is a rather infrequent aetiological factor. However, a recent study has illustrated that Zika virus infections affect not only developing fetuses in pregnant women, but are also a threat to fertility in men. Whether this threat could be managed or mitigated remains uncertain.
Functional urological disorders: a sensitized defence response in the bladder–gut–brain axis Functional urological and gastrointestinal disorders are interrelated and characterized by a chronic course and considerable treatment resistance. Urological disorders associated with a sizeable functional effect include overactive bladder (OAB), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Poor treatment outcomes might
Diagnostic dilemmas in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a rare condition and recommendations based on a high level of evidence for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up monitoring are lacking. Current decision-making is often based on evidence from trials investigating urothelial carcinoma of the lower tract. Radical nephroureterectomy has
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