Prostate cancer: Twist and Skp2 castration resistance A study published in Oncogene has demonstrated the role of S-phase protein kinase 2 (Skp2) in the progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) via Twist-mediated functions including increased epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and acquisition of cancer stem cells (CSCs).The Twist transcription factor is overexpressed
Prostate cancer: Antagonizing AR: MYC affects transcription New data, published in EBioMedicine, suggest that c-MYC (MYC) and the androgen receptor (AR) act antagonistically in prostate cancer and that MYC overexpression deregulates the AR transcriptional programme. Understanding this relationship is important for contextualizing biomarkers and therapeutic targets and selecting the optimal course
Prostate cancer: Transdifferentiation results in resistance New data have shown that transdifferentiation is a mechanism of treatment resistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). These observations could be helpful in stratifying patients who are likely to fail antiandrogen therapy.Zou and colleagues generated a mouse model of Pten and Tp53
Prostate cancer: Targeting the core of resistance The sequence preference of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) ligand binding domain (LBD) is similar to that of the androgen receptor (AR) and signalling through the GR results in gene expression that overlaps with that induced by AR signalling. Hence, the GR can be co-opted to
Kidney cancer: Tracking and therapy selection using ctDNA Despite the approval of various targeted therapies for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) over the past decade, biomarkers for allocating treatment to specific patients are lacking. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project has enabled a deeper understanding of the genomic profile of RCC, but these
Prostate cancer: PCA3 as a Grade Reclassification Predictor Prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3), a noncoding RNA overexpressed in prostate tumours, can provide prognostic information regarding potential for grade reclassification in men enrolled on active surveillance (AS) programmes, according to a recent paper in Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases.Investigators from John Hopkins
Prostate cancer: Circulating free DNA as biomarker Genomic analysis of serial, circulating free DNA (cfDNA) samples in patients undergoing PARP inhibitor (PARPi) therapy can be used to predict treatment responses and monitor emergence of PARPi resistance mutations, according to a new study in Cancer Discovery.The TOPARP-A trial had found that
Surgery: Retzius-sparing RARP improves continence recovery Most men undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) using the anterior approach eventually obtain urinary continence at 1 year after catheter removal; however, only around 50% are continent at 1 week. Now, data from a randomized-controlled trial indicate superior short-term continence-recovery outcomes following use of a
Prostate cancer: New AR co-regulator with dichotomous functions A new study shows that Grainyhead-like protein 2 (GRHL2) is a co-regulator of the androgen receptor (AR) in prostate cancer and has dichotomous functions, acting both as an oncogene by enhancing AR signalling and as a suppressor of metastasis-related phenotypes.“Alterations to the expression and
Prostate cancer: AZGP1 expression predicts favourable outcomes Data from a phase III trial demonstrate that zinc-α 2-glycoprotein (AZGP1) status at radical prostatectomy is predictive of outcomes of patients with prostate cancer, after a median follow-up duration of 15.8 years. Biopsy samples from a total of 347 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were analysed
Kidney cancer: Bap1 and Pbrm1 determine tumour grade Many clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) harbour ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase BAP1 (BAP1) and protein polybromo-1 (PBRM1) mutations. Now, data from genetically modified mouse models indicate that conditional Bap1 or Pbrm1 knockout with Von Hippel–Lindau codeletion results in ccRCC
Infection: Intravesical gentamicin ameliorates recurrent UTI Data from a retrospective cohort study indicate that regular intravesical instillations of gentamicin reduce the frequency of recurrent UTI. A total of 27 patients with ≥6 culture-confirmed treatment-refractory UTIs in the past year received nightly intravesical gentamicin infusions. Systemic absorption of gentamicin was generally limited,
Pain: Chondroitin sulfate is superior to hyaluronic acid Data from a comparison study involving patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome indicate the superiority of chondroitin sulfate compared with hyaluronic acid as glucosaminoglycan replacement therapy. Intravesical chondroitin sulfate was superior in terms of 24-hour urinary frequency, nocturia, and interstitial cystitis problem index scores. No
Incontinence: The dilemma with comparing efficacy of OAB treatments The comparative efficacy of drugs for the management of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) remains undefined. A new indirect treatment comparison demonstrates similar efficacy of mirabegron versus several antimuscarinic drugs and onabotulinum toxin A in a number of outcome measures. Head-to-head trials of these agents are still required to optimize the management of patients with OAB.
Sepsis: Prophylactic antibiotic for prostate biopsy: the carbapenem gamble Sepsis is an infrequent but serious adverse risk of transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy. A new study evaluated whether the use of single-dose ertapenem, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, resulted in increased carbapenem resistance following biopsy. However, physicians need to carefully consider the risks of antibiotic resistance when balancing the benefit of broad-spectrum antibiosis against a 1% risk of sepsis.
The potential of organoids in urological cancer research Technical advances in the development of organoid systems enable cell lines, primary adult cells, or stem or progenitor cells to develop into diverse, multicellular entities, which can self-renew, self-organize, and differentiate. These 3D organoid cultures have proven to be of value in increasing our understanding
The evolution of brachytherapy for prostate cancer Brachytherapy (BT), using low-dose-rate (LDR) permanent seed implantation or high-dose-rate (HDR) temporary source implantation, is an acceptable treatment option for select patients with prostate cancer of any risk group. The benefits of HDR-BT over LDR-BT include the ability to use the same source for other
Incontinence in the elderly, 'normal' ageing, or unaddressed pathology? The prevalence of urinary incontinence and other lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) increases in association with increasing age. This effect is more noticeable in men after the seventh decade of life and, in women, postmenopausally. However, the changes in the lower urinary tract, peripheral nervous
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