Healthcare is expensive for a large proportion of the population in spite of high per capita income and good health insurance penetration. In an effort to reduce cost of the procedure, reprocessing of devices was started in the late 1970s. Reprocessing practice includes various measures such as proper cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization procedures. As reprocessing is aimed at reducing cost, there is a potential risk of compromising patient safety due to cross contamination after inadequate sterilization. There is also risk of performance alteration of urological reprocessed devices during sterilization/disinfection processing. Therefore, there is a need for formulating proper guidelines to decide methods of reprocessing for various urological equipment. There is also need to discuss the problematic areas that urologists face and to find their solutions. A PubMed search was made in September 2016, using key words “reprocessing of medical devices,” “Single Use Devices,” “methods of reprocessing of devices in clinical practice,” “use of formalin chamber,” “urological disposable sterilization,” etc., After excluding duplicates, all English articles were reviewed by title and abstract. Full texts of selected articles were obtained, and these articles were cross-referenced to find any other related articles. All the articles were reviewed. A product can be reused if it can be economically reprocessed with validated protocols with preservation of its function. There is no reason to discard it after one use. This practice is useful for controlling economics of a urological case and to reduce the financial burden. Current Food and Drug Administration guidelines are stringent. The contamination described to test the sterilization process in the suggested guidelines actually does never exist in clinical practice. Therefore, new guidelines considering the clinical practice scenario are desirable.
The aim of this study is to report a case of acute ureterovaginal fistula (UVF) formation with immediate symptomatic presentation after transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval (TVOR) for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and to perform a systematic literature review of ureteral injuries during TVOR. A 33-year-old woman with a history of anovulatory infertility presented with severe abdominal pain and vaginal leakage immediately following TVOR for IVF. We systematically reviewed the current literature regarding ureteral injury resulting from TVOR and present a case of timely identification and management of a UVF followed by a successful pregnancy. Computed tomography cystogram with intravenous contrast and left retrograde pyelogram confirmed the diagnosis of UVF which was managed by placement of the left ureteral stent. The IVF cycle was converted to a freeze-all cycle. The ureteral stent was removed 4 weeks later, and a subsequent frozen embryo transfer cycle resulted in pregnancy. We present the 13th case of ureteral injury and the fourth case of UVF following TVOR. UVF formation is a rare complication after TVOR and may result in serious long-term morbidity if it is not identified and treated promptly. Clinicians must exercise a high degree of suspicion and prompt evaluation for potential ureteral injuries in women presenting with abdominal pain, urinary symptoms, or vaginal leakage following TVOR.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome and efficacy of transurethral resection of the prostate in patients of benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) with underactive bladder.
Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of 174 patients, who underwent transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) between 2008 and 2015, for lower urinary tract symptoms with BPE with bladder underactivity. Clinical history, physical examination, renal function test, urinalysis, cystourethroscopy, transabdominal or transrectal ultrasonography, and urodynamic study were recorded. Patients having a history of neurologic conditions, spinal trauma or surgery, pelvic trauma or surgery, diabetes mellitus with end organ damage, urethral pathology or surgery, and prostatic cancer were excluded from the study.
Results: The mean follow-up period was 22.4 ± 6.2 months. Mean prostate volume was 42.8 ± 6.4 ml and mean serum prostate-specific antigen was 2.3 ± 1.8 ng/ml. The International Prostate Symptom Score changed from 24.6 ± 4.2 preoperatively to 10.8 ± 5.8 postoperatively which was found statistically significant. Quality of life (QOL) score changed from 4.8 ± 1.2 to 2.6 ± 0.4. Twenty-two patients out of 174 remained on a per-urethral catheter or clean intermittent catheterization due to voiding failure after TURP beyond 1 month.
Conclusions: TURP should be considered a viable treatment option in men with enlarged prostate with underactive detrusor who had poor response to medical treatment. Preoperative counseling and postoperative follow-up are crucial in the management of such patients.
Objectives: Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) is an optimal technique of sperm extraction for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. This study is to present our experience in micro-TESE and evaluate the relation of its sperm retrieval rate (SRR) with patients' characteristics, testicular functions, and histological parameters as well as previous sperm retrieval interventions.
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed records of 255 patients with nonobstructive azoospermia who underwent micro-TESE between 2011 and 2014. Medical records were reviewed for the results of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone levels, karyotype analysis, and testicular histology pattern. Testicular volume was measured with an ultrasound scale.
Results: The mean patients' age was 35.8 ± 7.2 years, duration of infertility 7.7 ± 4.5 years, right testicular volume 13.1 ± 5 ml, and left testicular volume 12.9 ± 5 ml. The overall SRR was 43.9%. SRR was significantly higher in testes with hypospermatogenesis histology pattern (P = 0.011). Patients' age, testicular size, serum FSH, LH, prolactin, and testosterone or failed previous sperm retrieval interventions showed no significant impact on SRR. Eleven (4.3%) patients had nonmosaic Klinefelter syndrome with a mean age of 37.8 ± 3.3 years. Sperms were retrieved in 6 (54.5%) patients. Post micro-TESE androgens significantly deteriorated with near complete recovery after 1 year.
Conclusions: Micro-TESE has a high SRR, minimal postoperative complications, and reversible long-term androgen deficiency. Sperm retrieval depends on the most advanced pattern of testicular histology. Hypospermatogenesis pattern has the highest SRR. We demonstrated a high SRR with micro-ESE in men with Klinefelter syndrome.
Introduction: This study aimed to demonstrate the outcome of hypospadias repair in the pediatric population using the tubularized urethral plate technique and to compare the incidence of fistula between incised and unincised urethral plate.
Methodology: This is a retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients who had hypospadias repair in a tertiary hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between January 2000 and December 2012. They were divided into two main groups according to the status of the urethral plate: Group A included patients who had incision of the urethral plate just before tubularization, and Group B included patients who underwent tubularization without incision.
Results: After reviewing 310 medical records, 106 patients were included in the final analysis, with a median age of 2 years (interquartile range = 3 years). There was no statistically significant relationship between types of hypospadias and the development of fistula (P = 0.26). In Group A, we identified 87 patients (82%), and in Group B, there were 19 patients (18%). The overall incidence of fistula was 34.9% (n = 37). The incidence of fistula in Groups A and B was 36% (n = 31) and 32% (n = 6), respectively. This difference was not statistically significant. Despite a high fistula rate, only 12 patients (11%) were required to repeat surgery.
Conclusion: Incision of the urethral plate did not affect the fistula rate. In comparison to international literature, the incidence of fistula was significantly higher which could be explained by the fact that one-third of those patients had a previous hypospadias repair.
Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate our methods for management of renal caliceal diverticular stones (CDS).
Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study from January 2005 to July 2015 and included patients who were treated for renal CDS. Patients were evaluated for treatment modality, puncture site (in case percutaneous nephrolithotomy [PCNL] attempted), operative time, stone clearance rate, and complications. During PCNL, if the infundibulum was found to connect the diverticulum to the calyx, then a double J stent was placed. No attempt was made to dilate the diverticular neck or to create a neoinfundibulum.
Results: Twenty-four patients were treated for CDS during the study period. Two patients underwent shockwave lithotripsy, and 22 were managed by PCNL. Mean stone size was 16.37 mm (range: 6–35 mm) and mean diverticulum size was 20.62 mm (range: 12–37 mm). No fulguration was done in initial 17 patients, while fulguration by Holmium Laser was performed in the last five cases treated with PCNL. Mean operative time was 70.31 min (range: 47–90 min). Mean follow-up was 34 months, diverticulum resolved in 14 patients and reduced in size in 7 patients.
Conclusion: Caliceal diverticular calculi can be treated most efficiently by PCNL. Stone-guided puncture and no attempt to dilate or create neoinfundibulum reduces operative time and morbidity while yielding high stone-free rate.
Objective: This study aims to demonstrate a novel laparoscopic technique of tapering megaureter without disrupting the blood supply and disconnecting the ureter.
Materials and Methods: Eight cases of primary obstructive megaureter in the age group of 14–22 years underwent laparoscopic extravesical ureteric reimplantation between August 2011 and July 2015 using our novel technique. Five patients had obstruction on left side and three on right side. Follow-up ultrasonography at 1 month and 3 months, voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) at 3 months and intravenous urogram (IVU) at 6 months was obtained to assess the development of reflux and to look for adequate drainage of the obstructive ureter.
Results: Average age of the patients at the time of surgery was 18.5 years. Mean operating time was 95 min. Mean blood loss of 20 ml. VCUG done after 3 months showed no reflux in all cases. IVU done after six months showed no obstruction and complete drainage of dye.
Conclusion: Our technique of tapering obstructed megaureter over a preplaced ureteral dilator is time saving and also helps in preserving blood supply to lower ureter. As a result, ureteric anastomotic stricture rate is very low. It is easily reproducible in the open as well as by robotic.
Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of utilization and reimbursement of the common diagnostic tests and treatment modalities used in testicular cancer care.
Methods: LifeLink™ (IMS Health, Danbury, CT, USA) Claims Database was used. We identified 877 subjects with a primary diagnosis of testicular cancer (ICD 186.9) between 2007 and 2012. Median reimbursement and frequency of the diagnostic/treatment modalities used were recorded.
Results: The most common claim was a vein puncture with median reimbursement of $9.11. Tumor markers, alpha-fetoprotein and beta human chorionic gonadotropin, were ranked 6th and 7th with median reimbursement of $52.13 and $48.71, respectively. Chest X-ray and computerized tomography (CT) scan of the chest were ranked 9th and 13th with median reimbursement of $68.51 and $769, respectively. A contrast CT scan of abdomen and pelvis was the 11th most frequent claim with median reimbursement of $855.89. The three invasive treatment modalities, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy were ranked 8th, 15th, and 164th with median reimbursement of $2858.38, $3988.25, and $2009.67, respectively.
Conclusions: Testicular cancer is not an inexpensive disease. Surgery is the less utilized than radiation and chemotherapy despite lower cost. This may have implications to national guidelines and training since these treatments often carry the same grade of recommendation.
Introduction: Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy (LSC) has established itself as a safe method for the management of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Laparoscopic suturing is a time-consuming intraoperative task during LSC. Self-retaining barbed sutures (SBSs) are known to reduce the operative time in laparoscopic cases. The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SBS during the performance of LSC.
Materials and Methods: Twenty female patients with symptomatic POP were treated with LSC by an expert surgeon. The preoperative evaluation included the International Continence Society POP-quantification (POP-Q) and the prolapse-specific quality-of-life questionnaire Mesh fixation was performed with SBS anteriorly on the anterior vaginal wall and posteriorly on the levator ani muscle. A 5-mm titanium tacking device was used for promontofixation. The peritoneum was also closed with an SBS.
Results: Mean patient's age was 63 years (range: 50–79 years). According to POP-Q, system 3 patients (15%) had Stage I, 12 patients (60%) had Stage II, 3 patients (15%) had Stage III, and 2 patients (10%) had Stage IV prolapse. Concomitant hysterectomy was performed in 14 patients, respectively. Mean operative time was 99.75 (range: 65–140) min, mean blood loss was 57.75 (range: 30–120) ml. One patient had a bladder perforation intraoperatively, and three patients developed transient fever postoperatively. One patient had a recurrent cystocele and three patients recurrent rectocele.
Conclusions: The current study renders the use of SBS during LSC to be safe and efficient. Further comparative studies would elucidate the impact of the use of SBS in LSC.
Introduction: In renal transplantation, there is end-to-side anastomosis of renal artery to external iliac artery and end-to-end anastomosis of renal artery to internal iliac artery. The end-to-end internal iliac artery anastomosis can be associated with complications due to compromised distal vascular supply to limbs and penile erectile tissue. A method of end-to-side anastomosis can overcome them. Till date, there is no case series or trial that has studied the effect of end-to-side anastomosis. This study is aimed at comparing the outcome of end-to-side and end-to-end anastomosis, so as to evaluate the efficacy of end-to-side technique.
Materials and Methods: A total of 40 renal transplant recipients were taken, with internal iliac artery anastomosis, and were divided into two groups, 20 patients with end-to-end and 20 patients with end-to-side anastomosis. The cold ischemia time, arterial anastomosis time, post-operative bleeding and urine leak, claudication, saddle anesthesia and erectile dysfunction, and follow-up recipient creatinine and eGFR and Doppler to look for graft renal artery patency (at 6 months post-transplant) were compared between the two groups.
Results: The intraoperative cold ischemia time was slightly more in the group with end-to-end anastomosis, but it was statistically significant (P = 0.22). The arterial anastomosis time was comparable in both the groups (P = 0.65). In the end-to-end group, 15%, 20% and 15% patients had post-operative saddle anaesthesia, claudication and mild-to-moderate erectile dysfunction, which were absent in the end-to-side group. On follow-up, the mean recipient serum creatinine and eGFR were comparable in the two groups. Also, the graft renal artery patency on Doppler was comparable.
Conclusion: The end-to-side technique can be definitely applied for renal transplantation, with some advantages over end-to-end technique, and without compromising efficacy.
Context: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) in elderly males are usually related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in the majority of cases. It is estimated that BPH affects half of men above the age of 50 years. Recently, a relationship between Vitamin D deficiency and LUTS in elderly males has been reported.
Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze Vitamin D levels in males aged above 50 years presenting with LUTS.
Settings and Design: This is a prospective case–control study.
Patients and Methods: This was a case–control study in which males above 50 years of age who presented with LUTS (Group A) were compared with a control group (Group B) without LUTS. Both groups were investigated regarding Vitamin D level, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), International Prostatic Symptoms Score (IPSS), prostate size, flow rate, serum calcium levels, and abdominal ultrasonography.
Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical software package (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for the statistical analyses, performing t-test for quantitative data to compare between the two groups. Pearson's correlation coefficient “r” test was calculated between two quantitative, continuous variables in Group A. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: A total of 150 patients were studied. There were 70 and 80 patients in Groups A and B, respectively. The mean age of Group A patients was 60.32 ± 11.93 years versus 58.12 ± 10.55 years for Group B patients (P > 0.05). The mean value of Vitamin D level was 40.82 ± 29.46 nmol/L in Group A and 70.25 ± 22.42 nmol/L in Group B (P < 0.001). The mean value of prostate size was 50.12 ± 23.24 g in Group A and 30.68 ± 4.90 g in Group B (P < 0.001). The mean serum calcium level was 2.4 ± 0.14 mmol/L and 2.50 ± 0.15 mmol/L in Groups A and B, respectively (P < 0.001). The mean value of PSA in Group A was 2.24 ± 1.95 ng/ml versus 2.11 ± 0.45 ng/ml in Group B (P < 0.001). The mean value of IPSS in Group A was 13.38 ± 5.32 ml/s versus 3.41 ± 2.42 ml/s in Group B. The mean value of Q max in uroflowmetry in Group A was 11.5 ± 2 ml/s versus 15.4 ± 1 ml/s in Group B.
Conclusions: Men older than 50 years of age with LUTS have lower levels of Vitamin D compared to men without LUTS.
We report two cases of male patients with pelvic ectopic kidney with large stones cleared with laparoscopic-assisted minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (Mini-PERC) and holmium laser. These are the first cases of Mini-PERC done for pelvic ectopic kidney reported thus far.
A 55-year-old male with a history of iliac artery – popliteal artery polytetrafluoroethylene graft bypass presented 2 years later with sudden onset gross hematuria with sepsis. Computed tomography (CT) angiography was suggestive of fistula between ureter and iliac artery which was treated with arterial covered stent graft. The patient presented 2 weeks later with watery discharge from the previous scar. CT suggested ureter-cutaneous fistula. JJ stenting of ureter was done. The patient was discharged and on follow-up CT scan, there was no evidence of fistula and patient was completely asymptomatic. Ureter-iliac artery graft fistula with cutaneous involvement has not been reported in literature before.
An 82-year-old man presented with high-grade fever, left flank pain with dysuria. Urine culture revealed the growth of Escherichia coli. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography features were suggestive of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XPN) of the left kidney. Serial hemogram studies revealed markedly raised white cell count with the presence of blast cells. On further evaluation by peripheral blood smears and bone marrow biopsy studies, a background disease setting of acute prolymphocytic leukemia was diagnosed. This is a very rare case report of acute leukemia masquerading as a case of XPN, and the optimum treatment protocol is yet to be established in such a scenario.
Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare, aggressive primary renal malignancy that classically occurs in adolescent males with sickle cell trait and universally presents with metastatic disease at presentation. We report a case of medullary carcinoma in a young man with likely ophthalmic metastasis. We also review relevant literature available to date. The patient is a 20-year-old African-American male with a past medical history significant to for sickle cell trait who presented to the University Medical Center with cough and the right eye pain for 1 month as well as painless gross hematuria for 1 week. A chest and abdominal computed tomography showed a 7 cm hypodense right renal mass with bilateral hilar adenopathy, and multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules. A renal biopsy was performed and showed RMC. Ophthalmic exam revealed the right retinal hemorrhage concerning for a metastatic lesion. Palliative chemotherapy was offered to the patient, however, he and his family chose to enroll in hospice care considering his poor prognosis. He subsequently passed away 33 days after presentation. To our knowledge, there is only one other case of ophthalmic metastasis in a patient with metastatic RMC. Thus, we present this case to contribute to current literature regarding orbital metastasis in this largely fatal disease.
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a noninflammatory disease affecting small- and medium-sized arteries of the renal and the carotids. It affects the renal arteries in nearly 60%–75% cases. The primary clinical manifestation of renal FMD is hypertension. Medial fibroplasia represents the most common dysplastic lesion. We report two cases who presented with hypertension and renal insufficiency and on evaluation was found to have bilateral renal artery stenosis. Stenting of the renal vessels was not possible due to the narrowed caliber of the vessel and inability to cannulate the renal arteries. They underwent renal artery revascularization with a splenorenal end to end anastomosis. The renal parameters and blood pressure of both the patients stabilized subsequently. Renal revascularization can be a good option for patient having failed angioplasty with stenting.
Aortic aneurysms are very rare in Middle East unlike Europe and America. Therefore, this pathology is very likely to be missed in acute presentation to the Emergency Medicine Department. We present a case of leaking abdominal aortic aneurysm mimicking right ureteric colic, which was missed in the initial assessment.
Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) and its side effects are well known. However, these are mainly descriptive, with pictorial data lacking. Here, in we report a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, treated with TKI, with classic side effects; supplemented with images that demonstrate the adverse effects of the drug. In addition, we discuss and demonstrate the computed tomography changes.
Aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) particularly testicular origin is a rare benign mesenchymal myxoid tumor which is locally aggressive, blatant for local recurrence, and may metastasize. It occurs mostly in females of childbearing age and extremely rare in males. AMM particular testicular origin is not reported in literature yet. This is a 65-year-old man who had a right scrotal swelling. Ultrasound scrotum showed a soft tissue tumor of the right testis. The patient underwent radical right orchidectomy of which histopathologically confirmed to be a paratesticular AAM with clear resection margins. There were no signs of local recurrence or metastasis 2 years postsurgical resection.
Microdiscectomy is considered a very safe procedure with few serious complications. Ureteric injury following microdiscectomy is rarely reported in the literature. We report a rare case of iatrogenic ureteric injury following L5-S1 microdiscectomy for prolapsed intervertebral disc which was detected early and managed in time.
Xanthogranulomatous cystitis (XC) is a very rare chronic benign inflammatory disease of the bladder. It may cause local invasion although it is not a malign lesion and may occur together with malign lesions. It has a clinical importance as the distinction from malign lesions is difficult clinically and pathologically. Sharing a 37-year-old female case with giant XC imitating bladder tumor referring to the hospital with hematuria and stomach ache, together with current literature, we wanted to present that the disease can be treated with bladder-preserving approaches instead of radical approaches even though the mass is big in these cases. Application of basic excision and partial resection for small masses and radical cystectomy for large masses was reported in literature. We think that our case may provide a contribution to literature in treatment approach since we provided surgical cure with partial resection in a big mass with dimensions of 9 cm × 8 cm which is different from the present literature. Even though XC is a rare disease, it should be considered in prediagnosis for especially big dimensioned masses, and treatment should be planned according to the pathology result after together with cystoscopy in suitable patients.
Polyorchidism is a very rare genitourinary anomaly defined with the presence of more than two testicles. Polyorchidism is associated up to 40% with undescended testicles. The present report is about an incidentally detected triorchidism case with unilateral, one atrophic undescended double testicles. A 4-year-old child, diagnosed with undescended left testicle revealed during orchiopexy polyorchidism with distinct epididymis and vas deferens. Whereas one of the testicles was in regular size; the other two were atrophic. Orchiectomy was conducted on the atrophic testicle and orchiopexy to the regular size testicle. The atrophic testicle excised was referred histopathological analysis and was diagnosed as atrophic testis. The patient discharged on the first postoperative day, was considered as normal during postoperative evaluation made on the third postoperative day. Polyorchidism is a rare genitourinary abnormality, and its management is still controversial. Yet, we believe that orchiectomy is to be conducted in atrophic testicle cases.
Zoon's balanitis is an asymptomatic lesion that requires histopathological examination of involved tissue for confirmation of diagnosis. Till today, circumcision is considered as the treatment of choice as topical medical therapy is insufficient to cure the disease and also there was a risk of recurrence after discontinuation of therapy. Herein, we have treated the Zoon's balanitis with 0.1% topical tacrolimus with complete resolution of the lesion in 6 weeks. Hence, we think topical tacrolimus therapy should be considered as an alternative to circumcision in the treatment of Zoon's balanitis.
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