Invasion into adjacent organs by non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurs in 1% of patients suitable for resection. Colonic invasion is rare and presents technical challenges. No prospective data exists to guide management of these patients. We present the first reported case of a colon-invading RCC managed with simultaneous open right radical nephrectomy and extended right hemicolectomy. PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE databases were searched for relevant case reports reporting management of colon-invading renal cell carcinoma. Case reports, case series and cohort studies were eligible. A chart review was performed on a patient who presented with right-sided colon-invading RCC. Four previously reported cases were identified. The current case was managed with simultaneous open radical nephrectomy and extended right hemicolectomy. The patient remains well six months postoperatively with no evidence of disease recurrence. Histopathological evaluation of the resected specimen confirmed a T4 clear cell RCC with sarcomatoid differentiation. Colon-invading RCC is rare. This is the first reported case of right-sided, colon-invading RCC treated with radical resection. The current case confirms radical resection is a feasible management strategy for similar presentations. En bloc resection of involved organs remains the only potentially curative option for locally advanced disease.
Introduction: Worldwide, the seventh most commonly diagnosed cancer in the male population is Bladder cancer (BC), while it drops to eleventh when both genders are considered. Radical cystectomy is the surgical treatment of choice for patients with all muscle-invasive and some nonmuscle invasive BCs. An orthotopic continent diversion (neobladder) is preferred whenever possible to achieve a better postoperative quality of life. We attempt to study the functional outcomes of intracorporeal neobladder (ICNB) versus extracorporeal neobladder (ECNB) (ICNB vs. ECNB).
Materials and Methods: Forty patients who underwent robot-assisted radical cystectomy with neobladder in our institute during the period of March 2016–March 2018 were included in the study. An orthotopic neobladder (Studer method) was created in all our patients. Our main outcomes of interest were peak flow rates, residual urine, attainment of continence, and Pdet at qmax of the neobladder.
Results: The mean age of patients in our study group was 54 ± 6 years. The mean body mass index was 23 ± 2 kg/m2. The mean follow-up period was 24 ± 5 months. Twenty patients underwent ICNB and 20 patients underwent ECNB. The urodynamic assessment was done 1-year postprocedure. The same parameters applied to an intact bladder are used, and results analyzed by comparing it with other studies. Common in the initial postoperative period was incontinence which reduced substantially over time. After 1-year, 75% of patients did not require pads in the daytime, and a meager, <10% used more than one pad per day. There was no difference in outcome between both the groups, which was statistically significant.
Conclusion: Both ICNB and ECNB groups achieved urodynamically proven values of adequate bladder capacity and compliance. Daytime continence was excellent, and night time continence was good in both groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between both the groups as regards to urodynamic parameters. However, continence is attained little earlier in the ICNB group. There is no perceived superiority of ICNB over ECNB.
Objective: The objective was to assess the reliability and validity of“S.T.O.N.E” nephrolithometry scoring system to predict the stone-free rate (SFR) after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL).
Methods: A total of 123 patients with unilateral radiopaque stones ≥2 cm were included in the study. According to S.T.O.N.E score, five parameters available from preoperative computed tomography (CT) without contrast were measured: stone size (S), tract length (T), obstruction (O), number of involved calices (N), and essence of stone (E). The Stone free rates evaluated within one month postoperatively by plain X-ray and/or CT scan without contrast.
Results: The mean S.T.O.N.E. score in this study was 7.4 in stone-free (SF) group and 9.3 in residual stone group (P = 0.0001). Patients with SF comprised 82.1% after the first PNL, whereas 17.9% had significant residual stones >4 mm. Postoperative complications were 8%. The most common complications were bleeding requiring transfusion. The size of stone (P = 0.002) and number of calices involved (P = 0.001) had a statistically significant difference between patients with residual stones, other components were not. There was a statistically significant difference between non-SF and SF according to the hospital stay (P = 0.002).
Conclusion: This score predicted the clearance after PNL. The size of calculi and number of calices involved statistically affected the stone clearance, whereas other S.T.O.N.E scoring parameters were not. There was a statistically significant difference between SF and residual stones groups according to the hospital stay (P = 0.0001).
Purpose: Orthotopic neobladder is a well-established technique for continent urinary diversion after radical cystectomy. In this study, we evaluated a new Frog ileal neobladder technique. Since the reconstructed neobladder appears like a frog, the name Frog Neobladder was given to it. We have used two isoperistaltic ileal segments and implanted ureters in the nondetubularized proximal end of the ileal segment.
Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective, single-center (tertiary care hospital) study conducted from February 2008 to January 2018. Study patients were aged 39–94 years with biopsy-proven muscle-invasive localized bladder carcinoma. One hundred and twenty patients were included in the study, who had undergone Radical Cystectomy and were offered“FROG BLADDER”– a type of neobladder. Evaluation of complications, renal function, urodynamic parameters, post-void residual urine (PVR), continence, and need for clean intermittent catheterization was done in all patients with neobladder.
Results: A total of 120 patients were included in the study, the average age of the patients was 62 years. The operative mean time was 280 ± 29.8 min. There was no perioperative death, and perioperative or early and late complication rates were 31.2% and 18.7%, respectively. Six patients had uretero-enteric anastomosis stricture, of which two were managed by retrograde ureteroscopic dilatation, another three strictures were treated with antegrade approach, and one patient underwent open surgery. All patients were able to void urine, except for three patients who required self-catheterization. The mean capacity was increased to average of 398 ± 220 ml at 12 months in all patients. The mean PVR at 1 year was 46 ± 54.4 ml.
Conclusion: The Frog neobladder has similar outcome similar to other neobladder technique, with added advantage of ability to accommodate shorter ureteric length and the ease of accessing ureter by retrograde approach for intervention.
Purpose: To determine the effect of previous renal stone surgery on result and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).
Materials and Methods: Total 300 patients were enrolled in the study. We enrolled 100 surgery-naive cases (those with no history of any renal surgery) as control and labeled them as Group A. Group B comprised 100 cases who had PCNL in the past. Group C constituted 100 patients who had open renal stone surgery in the past. Stones were classified using Guy's stone score. PCNL was performed by standard technique in prone position and technical features encountered during operation and outcomes were compared between groups. Complications were graded using modified Clavien grading system.
Results: There were no differences between the three groups in age, gender, body mass index, stone burden, and stone opacity. Multiple calyceal stones and distorted pelvicalyceal system anatomy were more in Group C, but stone score showed no statistically significant difference from other groups. The mean operative time (68.91 ± 21.27 min) and fluoroscopy time (264.40 ± 74.90 s) were longer in Group C, but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Multiple access was significantly more common in Group C compared to the other two groups (P < 0.001). Access location too did not show any statistically significant difference between the groups. Postoperative complications were more in previous stone surgery patients, but did not show statistically significant difference.
Conclusion: PCNL is a safe and effective treatment modality for patients with renal stones regardless of history of previous PCNL or open renal surgery.
Introduction: Posterior urethral valve (PUV) is a congenital obstructive defect of male urethra that is diagnosed early during antenatal period with a presence of hydroureteronephrosis and associated with several morbidities including chronic kidney disease (CKD) that requires management, therefore, this study aim to evaluate the renal outcome of endoscopic valve ablation and urinary tract diversion in children with PUV,“when to worry, and what to do.”
Methodology: This is a retrospective cohort study reviewing medical records of all patients diagnosed with PUV that has been managed in Pediatric Urology Unit at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, Jeddah in the period of 1998–2008 with proven diagnosis at age younger than 16 accounted for 39 patients, and with different multiple demographics such as antenatal and postnatal ultrasound findings, serum levels of preoperative creatinine, mode of surgical treatment (i.e., endoscopic valve ablation and urinary diversions). Patients were divided into two groups according to the initial surgical intervention. Patient's characteristics and other variables were analyzed; t-test and Chi-square test were used.
Results: During the follow-up period, (45%) developed CKD with a mean time of 5.5 years, 18% reach to end stage renal disease (ESRD), (10%) requiring dialysis. Abnormal creatinine level was detected in 69% (27/39) of our patients before the intervention and normalized in 97% after intervention. In comparison between the two intervention groups, CKD were developed in 60% of patients with urinary diversion in comparison to 33% for the endoscopic ablation group with no statistical significance with P = 0.09. The time to develop CKD was faster in the diversion group with mean age of 18 months (standard deviation [SD] 2 years) in comparison to endoscopic ablation group with mean age 6 years (SD 4 years). Similar results were observed for development of ESRD, patients who underwent diversion had slightly higher incidence of ESRD. In our cohort group, the main determinant for deterioration of the future kidney function was the level of serum creatinine, preoperatively. Moreover, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) were developed in 64% of our cohort group and 49% of our population diagnosed with voiding dysfunction at 6 years of age.
Conclusion: A child with PUV who has a risk factor does have an increased potential of developing CKD, knowing that the type of intervention offered to treat PUV has no impact on the outcome. Furthermore, not having any of the study mentioned risk factors doesn't rule out the possibility of developing comorbidities which suggest that any child with PUV always need to be worried about and longer follow-up is indicated. Early intervention, check cystoscopy after ablation, close follow-up with appropriate laboratory and radiological investigation when necessary are recommended, and to improve the quality of data to the level reaching to a meaningful conclusion with high accuracy, a national database system from all centers across the country should be implemented.
Introduction: Management of chyluria with initial conservative approach and then using endoscopic sclerotherapy is a mainstay approach. However, a wide range of sclerosants are available with differential success rates and complication rates. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of a single-dose instillation of 1% povidone iodine for the treatment of chyluria.
Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, observational study conducted on patients with chyluria who did not respond to conservative management with dietary restriction and diethylcarbamazine. The site of chyle efflux was identified by cystoscopy. A 6 Fr ureteral stent was inserted into effluxing side, diluted contrast was injected to delineate the pelvicalyceal system and the pyelolymphatic connection (arborization of the pelvicalyceal system), and a single-dose of 1% povidone iodine was instilled. Patients were observed for loin pain, fever, and disappearance of milky urine postinstillation and followed up at intervals of 3 months for a total duration of 1 year.
Results: Of a total 50 patients included, 35 were men and 15 were women, with a mean age of 37 years. Pyelolymphatic connections were noted in 48% of the patients. All patients showed an immediate disappearance of milky urine. During 1-year follow-up, 92% of the patients were symptom-free till the last follow-up while only 8% of the patients experienced recurrence of chyluria which were treated with other treatment modalities. The mean duration of recurrence was 8 weeks.
Conclusion: Single dose of 1% povidone iodine was effective in immediate clearance of milky urine and well tolerated in patients with chyluria during 1-year follow-up.
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to diagnose urethral stricture and to determine the extent of spongiofibrosis as well as the length of stricture using sonourethrography and compare it with intraoperative findings.
Patients and Methods: It was a cross sectional observational study from September 2017-August 2018. All patients who presented with urethral stricture, scheduled for urethroplasty, and consented to the study were enrolled. The extent of spongiofibrosis and length of strictures were determined at sonourethrography and subsequently at urethroplasty. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of sonourethrography in the determination of length of stricture was done. Spearman correlation coefficient(r) was used to describe the association between the extent of spongiofibrosis found at sonourethrography and at urethroplasty.
Results: A total of 84 patients were evaluated during the study period. The median age at presentation was 45years. 81% of the patients had moderate spongiofibrosis on sonourethrography. There was a significant correlation of 71.4% between the extent of spongiofibrosis on sonourethrography and at urethroplasty. In evaluation for the length of strictures, sonourethrography had a sensitivity of 84.6% specificity of 82.7%, PPV of 68.7% and NPV 92.3%.
Conclusion: Sonourethrography is a valuable tool in the evaluation of urethral strictures. Its radiation free readily available even in resource-poor settings and gives a good evaluation of extent of spongiofibrosis as well as the length of strictures. It's use in the preoperative evaluation of strictures may improve the outcome of the management of strictures.
Introduction: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is known to invoke both immunological and inflammatory responses. While the neutrophils mediate the tumor-induced inflammatory response, the lymphocytes bring about the various immunological events associated with it. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a simple indicator of this dual response. We investigated the association between preoperative NLR and histopathological prognostic variables of RCC intending to find out whether it can be of value as a red flag capable of alerting the clinician as to the biological character of the tumor under consideration.
Methods: Preoperative NLR and clinicopathological variables, namely histological subtype, nuclear grade, staging, lymphovascular invasion, capsular invasion, tumor necrosis, renal sinus invasion, and sarcomatoid differentiation of 60 patients who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy, were analyzed to detect the association between the two.
Results: We found that mean preoperative NLR was significantly higher in clear-cell carcinomas (3.25 ± 0.29) when compared with nonclear-cell carcinomas (2.25 ± 0.63). There was a linear trend of NLR rise as the stage of the disease advanced. A significant rise in preoperative NLR was noted in tumors with various high-risk histopathological features such as tumor size, capsular invasion, tumor necrosis, and sarcomatoid differentiation.
Conclusion: Preoperative measurement of NLR is a simple test which may provide an early clue of high-risk pathological features of renal cell cancer.
Context: A grading system was created by Donald F. Gleason for prostate cancer as prognostic indicators. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was found that it could be a prognostic factor in solid tumors.
Aims: This study aims to assess whether there is a correlation between NLR with the results of the Gleason score of patients with prostate adenocarcinoma biopsy at Haji Adam Malik Hospital Medan.
Settings and Design: A total of 121 patients underwent a prostate biopsy from early January 2013 to December 2015 at Adam Malik Hospital.
Subjects and Methods: Of the 121 patients, thirty were not included in the study because of incomplete baseline data and a history of hematological abnormalities. Data from 91 patients were then taken, including age, hematologic data prebiopsy, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) on initial examination, prostate weight estimation, and Gleason scores from biopsy results.
Statistical Analysis Used: The data are processed with SPSS version 22.
Results: A significant moderate strength correlation was found between NLR and Gleason Score (r = 0.572; P = 0.001). However, no statistically significant correlation found between NLR and prostate weight estimation (r = 0.077; P = 0.469) and NLR with PSA (r = 0.072; P = 0.496).
Conclusions: A significant correlation between the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and the Gleason score was noted. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Objective: In this study, our objective is to compare the morbidity (up to 3 months) between percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and laparoscopic pyelolithotomy (LPL) in patients undergoing surgery for renal pelvic calculus in our population.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study done in a urology tertiary care center from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2018, among patients who had undergone PCNL or LPL for renal pelvic calculus. The sample size was 70, with 35 cases in each group.
Results: In LPL arm, there was a significant reduction in the day of the drain or nephrostomy removal (P = 0.013) and in the number of patients with persistent leak after removal of drain or nephrostomy (P = 0.048). Apart from this, the median of postoperative hospital stay was also significantly less in LPL arm (P = 0.00005). However, the mean duration of surgery was significantly higher in the LPL arm (P = 0.00001).
Conclusion: This study shows LPL and PCNL morbidity results are almost comparable except in a few factors. However, this study was a retrospective analysis of our work and it needs high quality randomized controlled study to establish the difference among these two procedures among our population.
Context: Circumcision holds a unique place in the daily practice of urology. Heat cautery device is the most common local technique used, we found it can cause meatal stenosis (MS) and its sequels.
Aim: The study aims to determine the incidence, presenting symptoms of MS and its relation to local traditional neonatal circumcision techniques among our children.
Settings and Design: This study was retrospectively study.
Materials and Methods: A total of 150 children who circumcised during the infancy period, outside medical institutes, and they circumcised using local traditional techniques either heating cautery devices or surgical knives.
Statistical Analysis: Of data were carried out using the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences - version 25 (IBM Corporation).
Results: Of 150 children, 60 (40%) had MS. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 5.98 ± 3.06 years (range 1–13 years) and the majority of patients were within the age group of 5–9 years (n = 31, 51.7%), median 6.0 years. The incidence of MS was significantly higher (P = 0.037) among a group of children circumcised with a heating device in comparison with the circumcised group with other methods. Forty-six children (76.7%) were symptomatic and fourteen children (23.3%) diagnosis of MS had performed incidentally.
Conclusions: MS is a long-term complication of neonatal circumcision with a late presentation and sequels. It is more common among group circumcised using heating cautery. We recommend using heating cautery cautiously.
Background: Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is the most frequent mesenchymal tumor of the kidney. Although there is a rare possibility of malignant transformation of AML, this risk has not been studied in immunosuppressed patients. The safety of donors with AML and their kidney transplant recipients has not been well established.
Methods: A literature search was conducted utilizing MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases from inception through May 15, 2018 (updated on October 2019). We included studies that reported the outcomes of kidney donors with AML or recipients of donor with AML. The protocol for this meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews; no. CRD42018095157).
Results: Fourteen studies with a total of 16 donors with AML were identified. None of the donors had a diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), or epithelioid variant of AML. Donor age ranged from 35 to 77 years, and recipient age ranged from 27 to 62 years. Ninety-two percent of the donors were female. Only 8% were deceased donor renal transplant. The majority underwent ex vivo resection (65%) before transplantation, followed by no resection (18%), and the remaining had in vivo resection. Tumor size varied from 0.4 cm to 7 cm, and the majority (87%) were localized in the right kidney. Follow-up time ranged from 1 to 107 months. Donor creatinine prenephrectomy ranged 0.89–1.1 mg/dL and postnephrectomy creatinine 1.0–1.17 mg/dL. In those who did not have resection of the AML, tumor size remained stable. None of the donors with AML had end-stage renal disease or died at last follow-up. None of the recipients had malignant transformation of AML.
Conclusion: These findings are reassuring for the safety of donors with AML (without TSC or LAM) as well as their recipients without evidence of malignant transformation of AML. As such, this can also positively impact the donor pool by increasing the number of available kidneys.
Crossed fused renal ectopia (CFRE) is an uncommon developmental anomaly of the genitourinary system whereby the two kidneys are located on the same side of the body and joined together, while the ureter of the ectopic kidney still enters the bladder in its normal side. CFRE has variable clinical presentations and usually discovered incidentally when patients are investigated for abdominal complaints. Treatment may be conservative when renal function is preserved with no associated symptomatic urological complications. Highlighted here is the unusual presentation of left-to-right CFRE with acute pyelonephritis as an appendix mass in a 19-year-old female.
A 22-year-old known case of 45XO/46XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis, reared as a male, presented with complaints of suprapubic and left iliac fossa pain for the past 1 month. The patient underwent laparoscopic right orchidectomy (streak) + Mullerian remnant excision + left orchidopexy + first-stage hypospadias repair 10 years back. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a large complex cyst in the left side of the pelvis and rectovesical space. Excision of the cystic structure was done along with left orchidectomy. Histopathological examination revealed features of Mullerian remnants (endometrial glands and cervix) in the cystic structure. The importance of this case report is to emphasize the fact that the Mullerian remnants tend to enlarge in size over time and become symptomatic and may require a surgical removal at a later date as in our case.
Retrograde ureteric calculus migration is a rare phenomenon. Herein, we report two such cases where each patient presented with a calculus, measured at 5 mm and 6 mm, respectively, at the vesicoureteric junction (VUJ) on noncontrast computerized tomography kidneys, ureters, and bladder (CTKUB). Following acute presentation with renal colic, each patient opted for conservative management of their ureteric stone and became asymptomatic when undergoing their follow-up imaging. The first patient underwent a follow-up noncontrast limited pelvic computerized tomography (CT) where it had appeared that the radiolucent VUJ calculus had passed. This stone was then discovered incidentally 3 months later in the upper ureter when the patient had undergone a CT colonography. The other patient underwent a follow-up X-ray KUB where the stone was shown to have migrated to the lower renal pole calyx which was confirmed with noncontrast CTKUB imaging. In all reported cases of retrograde VUJ calculus migration, the use of a noncontrast limited pelvic CT scan either missed or would have missed this phenomenon. This potential pitfall of the noncontrast limited pelvic CT scan should be appreciated and the use of full upper renal tract imaging should be considered for the follow-up of radiolucent VUJ calculus cases whereby there is no clear history of calculus passage.
We report a case of scrotal abscess due to urethral fistula in a paraplegic patient with spinal cord injury. On clinical examination, an urinary catheters was placed, and the left scrotal area were swollen, redness and painless. Retrograde urethrography suggested an urethral fistula with extension spreading of contrast medium into the scrotum. The case was diagnosed as urethral fistula with scrotal abscess. The patient was successfully treated with cystostomy, scrotal incision, and pus drainage. Early detection and proper management provide opportunities to improve the outcome of this disease.
Testicular metastases from ureteral carcinoma are rare and they are generally mimic orchiepididymitis. For this reason, these are associated to misleading diagnoses and cancer treatment delay. We believe that both timing and knowledge of genital blood and lymph reverse flow routes may represent two important parameters for avoiding misleading diagnoses and speed proper anticancer treatment. We describe a case and discuss pathophysiological data and relevant literature.
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