To review all published evidence regarding the use of Electromotive Drug Administration (EMDA) for the management of urological conditions, focusing on efficacy and safety, and highlighting areas that require further study. The PubMed and Medline databases were searched up to July 23, 2019. All studies reporting the use of EMDA to enhance the intravesical administration of therapeutic drugs for urological conditions were included. Two reviewers independently screened all articles, searched the reference lists of retrieved articles, and performed the data extraction. Thirty-two studies were included. The use of EMDA has been reported in the following urological conditions: (1) nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC); (2) overactive bladder; (3) bladder pain syndrome; (4) radiation cystitis; (5) detrusor acontractility; and (6) for analgesia prior to transurethral procedures. Overall, most studies are nonrandomized trials with small numbers of patients. The use of EMDA is reported to be safe and effective in all these conditions, with the highest level of evidence in NMIBC in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting. However, the low overall quality of evidence limits the conclusions that can be reached. The use of EMDA to improve the efficacy of intravesical treatments is promising, but the low overall quality of the evidence base has limited its widespread use. Future studies should compare EMDA to passive diffusion and current standard of care in large, randomized, and long-term studies to determine the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of this modality.
Aim: To summarize a new and easy technique of double-J stent (DJ stent) placement after retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy (RLU).
Materials and Methods: RLU for upper and upper half of mid ureteric stones was performed successfully in 172 patients during the 8-year period between March 2011 and February 2019. In all the cases, a ureteric DJ stent was successfully placed by this new technique. A small-bore antral puncture needle is inserted into the retroperitoneal space to push down a DJ stent with a guidewire into the lower ureter. The tip of the antral puncture needle is manipulated to bring it near the ureterotomy site for easy insertion of the stent. The whole stent is pushed down leaving only the upper end in the ureterotomy area. Then, the guidewire is removed and the upper end is pushed up slowly into the renal pelvis.
Results: DJ stents were successfully inserted by this technique in all the 172 cases. In most cases, the stent could be placed in <3 min (range between 2 and 8 min). In two patients, the upper end failed to fully coil in the renal pelvis, but as the stent was passed beyond the ureterotomy site, it served its purpose of an internal drain. None of our cases had any urinary leak. Stents were removed cystoscopically after 6–12 weeks.
Conclusion: This technique provides an easy, fast, and safe antegrade method of inserting a DJ stent after RLU.
Purpose: Male infertility represents 50% of all infertility problems. The management of male infertility is expensive, causing a huge burden on the patients. In this study, we aimed to calculate the cost burden of male infertility investigations and treatments.
Methods: A total of 600 infertile male patients from a single center in Kuwait city were asked to fulfill an internet-based survey. The survey encompassed data about the cost of different investigations and treatments of male infertility. Patients were also asked about the preference of covering their condition either through government or by private insurance.
Results: A total of 145 patients responded to the survey. Most of the patients earned 3295 United States Dollar (USD) to 6590 USD per month. The cost of the outpatient visit ranged from 131.7 to 263.4 USD. The cost of each hormonal test was 164.5 USD while the average cost of each imaging study was 131.8–164.7 USD. Most of the patients (62.8%) received medical therapy with an expense of >988.74 USD. Varicocelectomy cost ranged from 3295 to 6590 USD while the cost of testicular sperm extraction ranged from 1644 to 3294 USD. Most patients (96.3%) did not have health insurance coverage of infertility. On average, patients spent around 18% of their annual income on infertility care, excluding major surgeries.
Conclusion: Male infertility is a worrisome medical condition that causes a huge burden on the Kuwait community. Effective management necessitates insurance coverage and public health support owing to the huge financial burden on the patients and their partners. Thus, policymakers should re-evaluate their protocols of spending on male infertility care.
Purpose: Infertility has become one of the foremost public health concerns, affecting a large number of couples. This research aimed to study and analyze the epidemiological data of male infertility including demographic characteristics and potential accountable factors.
Materials and Methods: A population-based study was carried out among male patients of one center. Different factors have been investigated such as family history, smoking, and varicocele. Data were analyzed using the STATA statistical software package.
Results: A total of 608 male patients aged between 22 and 56 years were included. Out of them, there were 544 (89.95%) married, 48 (7.9%) married more than once, and 10 (1.6%) divorced. Primary infertility was noted in 478 (78.6%) patients. The most commonly reported sexual disorder was erectile dysfunction 53 (8.7%), while decreased libido was detected in 8 (1.3%) patients. Varicocele was present among 507 (86%) patients. Semen analyses of infertile patients revealed that 43 (8.2%) cases had normal semen tests. In contrast, oligoasthenospermia was the most commonly reported semen abnormality 158 (30.2%). A total of 198 patients underwent assisted reproductive technique.
Conclusion: This study concluded that primary infertility is the most common type among all infertile male patients who visited our center. The risk factors of male infertility include positive family history, smoking, and varicocele.
Background: The aim of this study was to validate and compare Guy's and S.T.O.N.E. scoring systems in predicting perioperative and postoperative outcome following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).
Materials and Methods: From November 2015 to June 2017, 190 patients with renal stones who underwent single tract unilateral PCNL in the prone position were included in our study. Guy's and S.T.O.N.E. nephrolithometry scores were calculated in each case based on preoperative computed tomography images. The association of these scoring systems with stone-free status, length of hospital stay, operative time, and postoperative complications was studied. Regression analysis was done, and receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted.
Results: Mean S.T.O.N.E. and Guy's stone scores were 8.76 ± 2.29 and 2.70 ± 1.0, respectively. When compared with patients with residual stones, stone-free (SF) patients had significantly lower mean Guy's score (2.58 ± 1.01 vs. 3.23 ± 0.77 [P < 0.001]) and S.T.O.N.E. scores (8.44 ± 2.24 and 10.17 ± 2.0 [P < 0.001]), respectively. On logistic regression analysis, both Guy's score (odds ratio [OR] = 0.48, P = 0.001) and S.T.O.N.E score (OR = 0.78, P = 0.001) were found to be significantly associated with SF status. Both of these scoring systems were also significantly associated with longer operative time (>90 min), prolonged hospital stay (>3 days) and overall complications. No significant difference was found in the area under curve for both scoring systems for stone clearance.
Conclusion: Both the S.T.O.N.E and Guy's scoring systems were found to predict the outcome of PCNL, either of these could be used in the routine clinical practice for patients' counseling.
Objective: The objective of the study was to identify the failure rate of insertion of ureteral access sheath (UAS) during primary flexible ureteroscopy (FURS).
Materials and Methods: This was a single-surgeon, single-tertiary care center retrospective study. All patients who underwent primary FURS for proximal ureteric or renal stones from November 2014 to May 2018 were included in the study. Patients with a stone burden of more than 20 mm were excluded from the study. A 10/12-Fr coaxial UAS (Bi-Flex, Rocamed) was used. Data collection included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), stone burden and location, previous spontaneous passage of stones, type of anesthesia, and preexisting congenital anomalies. The Chi-square test and t-test were used for the statistical analyses.
Results: One hundred and twelve patients were included in the study. All patients underwent primary FURS. The failure rate of primary UAS insertion was 10.7% (n = 12). No statistically significant difference was found in age, BMI, type of anesthesia, previous history of spontaneous stone passage, and stone burden between the success and failure groups (P > 0.05).
Conclusions: We believe that our study opens the door for a multicentric prospective trial. Identifying factors leading to a failed primary FURS and UAS insertion is crucial to properly counsel patients preoperatively about the number of procedures that they might need and to prevent the financial loss associated with failed UAS insertion.
Aim: The aim of the study was to identify factors that influence urology physicians for choosing subspecialty and to know the most competitive urology subspecialty among residents.
Methodology: An online questionnaire was sent to all Saudi Urology residents, registrars, and fellows all over Saudi Arabia, during February 2019–June 2019. The survey included demographic data, level and location of training, a subspecialty of interest, as well as 15 influencing factors that could affect physicians' choice in the form of Likert scale, ranging from strongly disagree = 0 to strongly agree = 4.
Results: Of the 193 urology Saudi physicians, 85 replied (44.1%). Their mean age was 29 + 3.2 years. The majority of them were male (98.8%). There were 66 (77.6%) residents, 12 (14.1%) were fellows, and 7 (8.2%) were registrars. Four factors were found to be significantly different across positions, i.e., personal interest in the subspecialty, patient's prognosis, potential to join a private hospital, and family/friend advice. Among residents, the highest score means of the impact factors were the patient's prognosis, potential to join a private hospital and family/friend advice. The most prominent factors that influence urology physicians to select their subspecialty were personal interest in the specialty (88.2%), followed by the patient prognosis and lifestyle (84.7%, 78.8%). About 28.2% of the participants have a desire of endourology, followed by infertility and pediatric urology (23.5% and 20%, respectively).
Conclusion: The most influencing factors among urology physicians for choosing their subspecialty are the patient's prognosis and personal interest. Female medical graduates should be encouraged to join a urology residency.
Purpose: The purpose of the study is to assess the quality of transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBTs) performed by “senior” and “junior” urologists in terms of detrusor muscle (DM) presence at the initial resection and presence of missed and residual tumors at second-look TURBT.
Patients and Methods: An analytic prospective cohort study included 171 patients with stage T1 and Ta bladder cancer who had undergone an initial TURBT. Patients were divided into two groups according to surgeon experience. Group 1 (116 patients) operated on by senior surgeons (consultants and trainees in year 5 or 6) and Group 2 (55 patients) operated on by junior surgeons (trainees below year 5). All patients underwent second-look TURBT (by a senior urologist) within 2–6 weeks after the initial resection. The outcome of the initial and re-TURBT represented with regard to the surgeon experience.
Results: There is a statistically significant difference between senior and junior surgeons regarding the presence or absence of DM in the initial resection (P = 0.001). A significant relation between the presence of residual tumors in re thermodynamic uncertainty relation (TUR) in relation to the initial operator was found (P = 0.03). Re-TURBT of patients in Group 1 (initially operated on by experienced surgeons) revealed that 57.7% had tumor-free resection while 36.2% had residual tumors, 5.2% had missed lesion and only 0.9% had concurrent residual and missed tumors. In contrast, from Group 2 (55 patients operated by junior surgeons) 47.3% had residual tumor, 21.8% had missed lesions, and 9.1% had concurrent residual and missed tumors in re-TUR.
Conclusions: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer treated with TURBT should be managed as any other major oncologic procedure. TURBT should be performed by an experienced surgeon or with very close supervision when done by training urologist.
Background: The Plastibell circumcision technique has gained popularity worldwide. It has a low bleeding risk which makes it suitable for a vulnerable population and in late circumcision. However, several problems resulting from prolonged retention of the Plastibell ring were reported.
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the outcomes of circumcision performed using Plastibell devices, report ring-related complications, and compare the complications of the technique between neonates and infants.
Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study that was conducted in a total of 989 male neonates and infants who had Plastibell circumcision performed by a single surgeon between June 2006 and February 2018. Postoperative complications were reported and compared between the two age groups. The indications of the Plastibell technique were religious in 988 patients and urinary tract infection in 1 patient.
Results: During the study period, Plastibell circumcision was performed in 633 neonates and 356 infants. The average ages of neonates and infants were 14 ± 2 days and 3 ± 0.5 months, respectively. Complications developed in 89 cases, 4.4% in neonates and 17% in infants (P < 0.001). The retained ring was the most common complication in 46 cases (4.6%), followed by excess skin in 21 cases (2%). Bleeding occurred in 10 cases (1%), infection in 7 cases (0.7%), and hematoma in 2 cases (0.2%).
Conclusion: Complications of Plastibell circumcision are significantly higher in infants than in neonates, and ring retention is the most common complication in both the groups. However, the risk of severe hemorrhage is low making it a good option for infants in the outpatient setting.
Objective: The objective of the study was to present the current practice patterns on percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in Saudi Arabia and to compare it with the international patterns and to observe the adherence to the guidelines.
Materials and Methods: A survey consisting of 28 questions was sent to urologists working in Saudi Arabia using a Google Forms questionnaire. The questioner covered most aspects of performing PCNL starting from preparing the patient till discharging him.
Results: One hundred and thirty-two replied to the survey. Almost 70.2% performed PCNL and 59.1% of them learned PCNL during residency. The access was obtained by the urologists in 80.3% from the participants, 68.2% of them uses fluoroscopic guidance for the puncture. The majority (80.3%) perform PCNL in the prone position. Nearly 69.7% use the balloon dilators and 16.7% use the Amplatz dilators. For kidney drainage, 60.6% place a nephrostomy tube and a double-J stent (DJ stent) together and 4.5% perform tubeless PCNL (DJ stent only). About 45.5% stated that the introduction of flexible ureteroscopy decreased the rate of doing PCNL for >20%.
Conclusions: Data obtained from a group of urologists in Saudi Arabia showed that the majority of urologists practicing in Saudi Arabia perform PCNL. They usually learn PCNL during residency. We observe that the majority of urologists attach to the original patterns in PCNL, i.e., they predominantly prefer the prone position and use fluoroscopy to gain the PCNL access. Furthermore, the data showed that new trends in PCNL did not gain a lot of momentum as few practices miniaturized PCNL and tubeless PCNL. The majority use balloon dilators and combined ultrasonic/pneumatic lithotripters. The complication rate encountered by the participants is concomitance with the published international figures. The introduction of flexible ureteroscopy highly decreased the rate of doing PCNL for most urologists.
Objective: The objective of the study was to compare maintenance versus single course of intravesical Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG) in the management of high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) regarding recurrence, progression, survival, and complications.
Patients and Methods: After transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), Group I patients (33) received weekly doses of 90 mg of live attenuated Pasteur strain of BCG. The course was started 14 days after the second TURBT for 6 consecutive weeks. In Group II: 35 patients, the induction schedule was followed by 3 weekly instillations at months 3, 6, and 12 as a maintenance course. Recurrence, progression rates, survival, and toxicity were assessed in both the groups.
Results: Patients with induction therapy alone had significantly higher recurrence rate than those received maintenance therapy (55.6% vs. 19.2%, P = 0.01). The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 41% and 78% in both the groups, respectively. There was no significant difference regarding the progression rate for both the groups. The mean 5-year progression-free time was comparable between the two groups. The 5-year progression-free survival was 69.8% for patients who underwent induction therapy alone compared to 70.7% for maintenance therapy. Overall local adverse events were significantly higher in patients who underwent maintenance treatment protocol.
Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS package version 20 and Kaplan–Meier curves were used to evaluate the survival rate.
Conclusions: Maintenance doses of BCG significantly decrease and delay the recurrence of high-risk NMIBC. However, there is no significant favor as regards tumor progression. Maintenance doses of BCG are significantly associated with a higher incidence of local adverse effects than induction doses alone.
Background: Multiparametric (mp) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–ultrasound fusion-targeted biopsy (TB) has improved the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (csCaP) using the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) reporting system, leading some authors to conclude that TB can replace the 12-core systematic biopsy (SB). We compared the diagnostic performance of TB with SB at our institution.
Methods: Eighty-three men with elevated prostate-specific antigen levels (6.6 ng/mL, interquartile range [IQR] 4.5–9.2) and abnormal mp-MRI (127 lesions, PI-RADS ≥3, median size: 1.1 cm, IQR 0.8–1.6) underwent simultaneous TB and SB. Diagnosis of any CaP (Gleason score, [GS] ≥6) and csCaP (GS ≥7) was compared using the McNemar's exact test.
Results: SB showed higher, but not statistically significant, detection rates of any CaP and csCaP (51.8% and 34.9%) versus TB (44.6% and 28.9%) (P = 0.286 and P = 0.359, respectively). TB outperformed SB in the quantification of 56.6% CaP and detecting cancer in anterior sectors (7.2%). Compared to SB, TB missed twice the amount of any CaP and csCaP. SB alone detected 22.2% of all csCaPs and upgraded 20.6% of TB-detected CaP. SB identified cancer invisible on mp-MRI (13.7% of all CaP) or missed by TB due to a small size (<1 cm) and sampling error (7% of lesions).
Conclusion: A combination of SB with TB remained necessary for achieving the highest cancer detection rates. Limiting prostate biopsy to TB alone can miss csCaP due to the presence of synchronous high-grade cancer invisible on MRI or failure to hit the target. TB is the best approach for anterior lesions and tumor quantification.
Introduction: Current American Urological Association (AUA) Best Practice Statement recommends antibiotic prophylaxis for cystoscopy with manipulation, including stent removal; although no Level 1b trials explicitly address prophylaxis for stent removal. We sought to determine the efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent infectious complications after stent removal.
Materials and Methods: Following institutional review board approval, patients undergoing removal of ureteral stent placed during stone surgery were recruited from July 2016 to March 2019. Patients were recruited at the time of stent removal and randomized to treatment (single dose 500 mg oral ciprofloxacin) or control group (no antibiotics). Telephone contact was attempted within 14 days of stent removal to assess for urinary tract infection (UTI) symptoms, antibiotic prescriptions, or Emergency Department visits. Primary outcome was UTI within 1 month of stent removal – defined by irritative voiding symptoms, fever or abdominal pain associated with positive urine culture (Ucx) (>100k colony-forming units/mL).
Results: Seventy-seven patients were enrolled, with 58 meeting final inclusion criteria for the analysis (33 treatment, 25 controls). No differences were seen with clinical and demographic variables, except a higher body mass index in the treatment group (P = 0.007). Positive Ucx rate before stone surgery (16.7% vs. 11.8%, P = 0.819) and at the time of stent removal (16.0% vs. 11.1%, P = 0.648) was not significantly different in treatment versus control groups, respectively. Primary outcome: No patients in either cohort developed symptomatic culture-diagnosed UTI within 1 month of stent removal. Of patients with documented phone follow-up (treatment n = 29, control n = 22), only one patient (control) reported any positive response on phone survey.
Conclusions: We found a low infectious complication rate regardless of antibiotic prophylaxis use during cystoscopic stent removal. The necessity of antibiotics during routine cystoscopic stent removal warrants possible reevaluation of the AUA best practice statement.
Agenesis of penis is a very rare developmental anomaly, which is usually associated with scrotal hypoplasia or other urological developmental anomalies. Here we psesent such a case who presented to us with stenosis of newly constructed urethra.
Testicular ischemia caused by inguinal hernia repair, and even the presence of the hernia itself, has been recognized in the medical literature, with the latter more commonly in children, but such an event after manual reduction has never been reported before. We present the case of a 67-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with a painful left groin lump. A left inguinoscrotal hernia was diagnosed and reduced “en masse” with manual pressure at the bedside. The patient was discharged but developed acute-onset left scrotal pain as soon as he got home and then re-presented 2 days later with increasing severity of the pain and swelling ever since the hernia reduction. On examination, he was febrile, with a hard, tender, and swollen left testis. Serum inflammatory markers were elevated. Conservative management with intravenous antibiotics and analgesia was commenced. An ultrasound of the testes demonstrated lack of Doppler flow to the left testis, suggestive of acute ischemia. Three days later, there were persistent temperature spikes and significant pain; therefore, the patient underwent an acute left scrotal exploration where a necrotic, black left testis was discovered and excised. He was discharged on the 1st postoperative day; histological analysis confirmed testicular infarction.
Polyorchidism is a very rare embryological anomaly characterized by the presence of extra number of testes with the usual presentation of two homolateral and one contralateral testis and no clear guidelines for management. Herein, we present a 14yearold case with left supernumerary testes presented with discomfort and painless mass, diagnosed by US and confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Conservative treatment was implemented, in the form of ultrasound followup imaging (every 6–12 months) with selfscrotal examination every month.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract is a rare entity associated with rapidly progressive disease and poor outcomes. Here, we describe a case of a squamous cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract associated with significant progression and paraneoplastic syndrome. Post-operatively, the patient had near complete resolution of her paraneoplastic syndromes with significant improvements in her functional status.
Wunderlich syndrome is a rarely entity. We report our case of a 60-year-old female, who presented in the emergency medicine department with acute right flank pain, tender mass right upper quadrant abdomen, hypotension, and visible hematuria. Urgent computerized tomogram confirmed bleeding in the right renal angiomyolipoma. Selective angioembolization was done. The patient recovered and was sent home after 1 week. On follow-up after 1 month, she is doing fine, and on ultrasound, AML had interval decrease in size.
Zinner syndrome is a rare congenital abnormality occurring in males comprising a triad of unilateral renal agenesis, ipsilateral ejaculatory duct obstruction, and seminal vesicle cyst. Most patients remain asymptomatic, and some may present with lower urinary tract symptoms or infertility. We present a case of incidentally detected Zinner syndrome in a patient with nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of testis, an association that is not reported in literature to our knowledge.
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