Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery in urology is an ever progressing field, and boundaries are constantly broken with the aid of new technology. Advancements in instrumentation have given birth to the era of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site technique (R-LESS). R-LESS however, has not gained widespread acceptance due to technical hurdles such as adequate triangulation, robotic arm clashing, decreased access for the bedside assistant, lack of wrist articulation, continued need for an axillary/accessory port, lack of robust retraction, and ergonomic discomfort. Many innovations have been explored to counter such limitations. We aim to give a brief overview of a history and development of R-LESS urologic surgery and outline the latest advancements in the realm of urologic R-LESS. By searching PubMed selectively for relevant articles, we concluded a literature review. We searched using the keywords: robotic laparoscopic single incision, robotic laparoendoscopic single-site, single incision robotic surgery, and R-LESS. We selected all relevant articles in that pertained to single-site robotic surgery in urology. We selected all relevant articles that pertained to single-site robotic surgery in urology in a table encompassed within this article. The development of the R-LESS procedures, instrumentations, and platforms has been an evolution in progress. Our results showed the history and evolution toward a purpose-built single-port robotic platform that addresses previous limitations to R-LESS. Even though previous studies have shown feasibility with R-LESS, the future of R-LESS depends on the availability of purpose-built robotic platforms. The larger concern is the demonstration of the definitive advantage of single-site over the conventional multiport surgery.
Aims: Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in large and small prostates is managed in a similar manner despite considerably different pathophysiology, which can result in higher failure rates. We investigate the clinical and urodynamic features and study the outcome of patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) according to their prostate size.
Subjects and Methods: We prospectively analyzed 100 BPH patients undergoing urodynamic study between January 2015 and August 2016 and divided them into two groups according to their prostate size: small (≤30 mL) and large prostate (>30 mL) groups. We compared the groups regarding age, International Prostate Symptom Score, maximal flow rate (Qmax), postvoided residual, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume measured by ultrasonography (USG), and urodynamic findings.
Statistical Analysis Used: For testing the hypothesis, we used the Chi-square test, Student's t-test, and one-way analysis of variance when comparing between groups and conducted the logistic regression analysis for determining predictive factors of BOO.
Results: Although the total prostate volume significantly correlated with the PSA, patients with a small prostate had lower Qmax (5.27 ± 4.8 mL/s vs. 6.14 ± 6.66 mL/s; P= 0.74), higher incidence of abnormal baldder capacity (39.9% vs. 31.25%), lower voiding efficiency (39.3 ± 40.5% vs. 40.57 ± 32.11%), low compliance (44.4% vs. 31.3%), higher incidence of indeterminate detrusor contractions (38.9% vs. 37.5%), lower incidence of detrusor underactivity (33.3% vs. 28.1%), lower BOO index (40.9 ± 43.2 vs. 49.10 ± 44.48), lower bladder contractility index (77.8 ± 48.84 vs. 92.09 ± 52.79), and lower PdetQmax (51.44 ± 42.23 vs. 61.38 ± 42.01 cmH2O). Small prostates had higher failed voiding trials postsurgery.
Conclusions: BOO patients with a small prostate showed poor urodynamic parameters and reported higher postoperative complications.
Aims: There has been much speculation and discussion about the infective complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). While fever is common after PCNL, the incidence of it progressing to urosepsis is fortunately less. Which patient undergoing PCNL is at risk of developing urosepsis and in whom aggressive treatment of fever postoperatively may prevent the progression to severe sepsis becomes a very important question. This study aims to answer these vital questions.
Settings and Design: This is a single institutional, retrospective study over a period of 3 years.
Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records of the patients undergoing PCNL from August 2012 to July 2015 was done. A total of 580 patients were included in the study, and the study variables recorded were analyzed statistically.
Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-square test.
Results: Three factors significantly correlated with postoperative severe sepsis, namely, stone size >25 mm, prolonged operative time >120 min, and significant bleeding requiring transfusion. Factors associated with fever after PCNL which did not progress to sepsis were the presence of staghorn calculi and multiple access tracts in addition to the factors listed above for sepsis.
Conclusions: Fever after PCNL is not uncommon but it has a low incidence of progressing to life-threatening severe sepsis and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome. Special precautions and monitoring should be taken in patients with bigger stone (>25 mm) and patients with severe intraoperative hemorrhage requiring blood transfusion. It is better to stage the procedure rather than prolong the operative time (120 min). Identifying these factors and minimizing them may decrease the incidence of this life-threatening complication.
Context: The rate of progression to metastatic disease in patients undergoing active surveillance for small renal tumors varies in the literature between 1% and 8%.
Aims: This study aims to examine the incidence of metastasis in small renal tumors of <4 cm in a Danish cohort.
Settings and Design: Retrospective.
Methods and Material: Data on 106 patients who were diagnosed with renal cancer (RCC) of <4 cm by CT scan from January 2005 to December 2013 were collected retrospectively in January 2016 from patient charts and analyzed.
Statistical Analysis Used: The cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods.
Results: The mean age was 62 years (range 40–84 years). Two patients (1.9%) had metastases at the time of diagnosis. Radical nephrectomy was performed in 74 patients (70%); of them, one patients (1.4%) experienced late metastasis (LM). Partial nephrectomy was performed in 30 patients (28%); of them, two patients (6.7%) experienced LM. The mean time to LM was 27 ± 12 months (95% confidence interval: 4–56). CSS rates were 98%, 97%, and 97% for 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively, while OS rates were 96%, 92%, and 86% for 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. On multivariate analysis, tumor size (P = 0.04), pT3a (P = 0.0017), and patient's age (P = 0.02) at the time of diagnosis were significant predictors of LM.
Conclusions: Even small renal carcinomas may be aggressive, and caution should be taken when offering active surveillance.
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the causes of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in postmenopausal female patients (PMFP) and correlate their symptoms with their urodynamic study (UDS) findings.
Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study analyzing the clinical and UDS findings of PMFP presenting with LUTS. A detailed history including history of diabetes, neurological disease, drug history, and pelvic surgeries was taken, followed by physical examination and urodynamic assessment.
Results: A total of 100 patients were classified according to their predominant symptoms into three categories: (1) voiding dysfunction (45 patients), (2) storage symptoms (30 patients), and (3) urinary incontinence (25 patients). The patients with voiding LUTS could be categorized urodynamically into three grades of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO): (a) early (37.8%) (maximal flow [Qmax] >15 mL/s and detrusor pressure at maximal flow [PdetQmax] >30 cm of water), (b) compensated (31.1%) (Qmax <15 mL/s and PdetQmax >30 cm of water), and (c) late (31.1%) (Qmax <15 mL/s and PdetQmax <30 cm of water). The patients with storage symptoms could be categorized into two with either the presence of demonstrable idiopathic detrusor contractions (53.3%) or not (46.7%). The patients with incontinence were of three types: (a) stress incontinence (44%), (b) urge incontinence (28%), and (c) mixed incontinence (28%). UDS showed no demonstrable leak in nine patients (36%) and the rest had UDS findings corroborative to their symptoms.
Conclusions: Thus, the major LUTS in PMFP were BOO, storage symptoms, and incontinence. Proper evaluation of LUTS necessitates UDS and along with good physical examination can help us in reaching a correct diagnosis and plan respective treatment.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of sacral neuromodulation (SNM) in patients with idiopathic nonobstructive urinary retention.
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the files of patients who underwent staged neuromodulation for idiopathic nonobstructive urinary retention from 2004 to 2016 at our hospital. Patients who had a 50% improvement in symptoms after 1 week of stage 1 procedure were qualified for permanent device implantation. Patient data were assessed on efficacy and need for intermittent self-catheterization, complications, and operative revision rates.
Results: Twenty-seven female patients who underwent SNM therapy were analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 32.5 ± 10.8 years. The mean duration of urinary retention was 3.2 ± 1.7 years. All patients were doing intermittent self-catheterization, but few were able to void <100 ml. Twenty-four (88.8%) of the 27 patients demonstrated a >50% improvement in symptoms and underwent permanent device placement. At a median follow-up of 5.7 ± 3.2 years, 20 (83.3%) of the 24 patients demonstrated sustained improvement rates of >50%. Seventeen (70.83%) of 24 patients could void spontaneously with a mean residual urine of 28.1 ± 24.4 ml (P < 0.001). Three (12.5%) were voiding with significant mean decreasing number of catheterizations from 5.6 ± 2.4 to 1.4 ± 2.1 (P < 0.001). Four (16.6%) had their device explanted. Ten (41.6%) of the 24 patients underwent surgical revision. Most of the adverse events were managed by device reprograming.
Conclusion: SNM is a highly effective and safe procedure in this subset of the female population with idiopathic refractory nonobstructive urinary retention.
Introduction: There is a multiplicity of treatments currently available for patients with symptomatic refractory urodynamic idiopathic detrusor overactivity (SRU IDO). We have assessed patient treatment preferences and their outcomes over a 12-month period from January 1 2009 to December 31 2009.
Patients and Methods: A retrospective database of all patients with SRU IDO was reviewed for patient demographics, treatment preference, and outcome. All patients attending for treatment in the time period were offered: no further treatment, repeat bladder training ± antimuscarinic (BT ± AM), acupuncture, intravesical botulinum toxin injection, sacral neuromodulation (SNM), clam cystoplasty ± Mitrofanoff channel formation, and ileal conduit.
Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis of outcomes was done by Chi–square test, and statistical significance was determined as P< 0.05.
Results: A total of 217 patients with SRU IDO underwent primary treatment in this time period, with a median age of 56 years and follow-up for a minimum of 12 months' posttreatment to determine outcome. No patients opted for any further treatment or an ileal conduit. The majority of patients opted for intravesical botulinum toxin injections and SNM with similar success rates (approximately 70%). A small number of patients decided to have nonsurgical interventions (BT ± AM or acupuncture) and had a broadly similar success rate (50%). A minority opted for clam cystoplasty ± Mitrofanoff channel formation – this group reported the highest success rate at 86%.
Conclusions: Treatment options in SRU IDO are diverse, with the majority of patients opting for minimally invasive surgery. Clinicians should be familiar with all treatment options for management of SRU IDO.
Objectives: The objective of this study is to present the outcomes of men undergoing implantation of artificial urinary sphincter, after treatment for prostate cancer and also to determine the effect of radiotherapy on continence outcomes after artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) implantation.
Material and Methods: A prospectively acquired database of all 184 patients having AUS insertion between 2002 and 2012 was reviewed, and demographic data, mode of prostate cancer treatment(s) before implantation, and outcome in terms of complete continence (pad free, leak free) were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests.
Results: A total of 58 (32%) men had bulbar AUS for urodynamically proven stress urinary incontinence consequent to treatment for prostate cancer in this period. Median follow-up post-AUS activation was 19 months (1–119). Forty-eight (83%) men had primary AUS insertion. Twenty-one (36%) men had radiotherapy as part of or as their sole treatment. Success rates were significantly higher in nonirradiated men having primary sphincter (89%) than in irradiated men (56%). Success rates were worse for men having revision AUS (40%), especially in irradiated men (33%).
Conclusion: Radiotherapy as a treatment for prostate cancer was associated with significantly lower complete continence rates following AUS implantation.
Purpose: Patients with deranged renal functions have a number of associated factors which can impair healing of wound and increase postoperative morbidity. This study was conducted to assess the problems while managing ectopic pelvic kidney calculi using laparoscopic approach for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in chronic kidney disease patients.
Subjects and Methods: Patients with calculi in ectopic kidney with increased serum creatinine level secondary to obstruction were included in the study. Initially, obstruction was relieved. Patients later underwent laparoscopic-assisted PCNL. Patients were monitored postoperatively.
Results: Three patients with large renal calculi in ectopic pelvic kidney had presented in 2 years. Laparoscopic-assisted PCNL was done to remove the stone. Patients had persistent urine leak post-operatively. Mean duration for removal of nephrostomy tube and drain removal were 4.67 days and 6.67 days, respectively. These patients also had paralytic ileus for prolonged duration.
Conclusion: Although laparoscopic assisted PCNL is an option in the management of patients with stone disease in ectopic pelvic kidney, prolonged time for healing of tract may increase postoperative morbidity in these patients with impaired renal function.
Introduction: We evaluated the predictive factors which affect the efficacy of naftopidil 50 mg/day therapy and dose increase therapy to administration of 75 mg/day after an initial dose of 50 mg/day.
Materials and Methods: A total of 92 patients with male lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia were administrated naftopidil 50 mg/day for 4 weeks (50 mg therapy). At week 4, the patients were divided into an effective and an ineffective group (Group E and Group I, respectively). For further 4 weeks, the dosage of naftopidil was increased to 75 mg/day in all patients. At week 8, the patients of Group E and Group I were divided into an effective and an ineffective group (Group EE, Group EI, Group IE, and Group II, respectively).
Results: Postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume at baseline was a predictive factor for efficacy of 50 mg therapy. In Group E, change in International Prostate Symptom Score storage symptoms subscore from baseline to week 4 was a predictive factor for efficacy of this dose increase therapy. In Group I, change in maximum flow rate from baseline to week 4 was a predictive factor for efficacy of this dose increase therapy.
Conclusions: The short term of naftopidil 50 mg therapy was ineffective for the patients who had large PVR. The predictive factor of this dose increase therapy might be a dynamic variable in 50 mg/day of dose period, but not a baseline variable at the time of 75 mg/day dosage starts.
Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) increases the risk of new onset diabetes mellitus (DM) or significant changes in fasting blood sugar (FBS).
Materials and Methods: A total number of 307 patients enrolled in this study. All of them had undergone ESWL for kidney stone from 1991 to 1994. In 2009, after 15-19 years, we invited patients to check their blood sugar.
Results: There were 307 patients, 19.8% females, and 80.1% males. The mean age of the patients was 44 for females and 42 years for males. 47.5% had kidney stone in the left side, 42.9% in the right side and 9.4% bilateral. The mean FBS increasing was 11.86 g/dl. It was 14.54 g/dl for the right side, 8.57 g/dl for left and 16.24 g/dl for bilateral ESWL.
Discussions: The increasing of FBS is more significant in shock wave intensities higher than 15.5 KV. And there wasn't any significant relationship between age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and total number of shock waves with increasing of FBS. ESWL treatment might associate with increasing FBS without any relation to age, sex and BMI.
Retroperitoneal cysts are not common. Primary retroperitoneal cysts are essentially benign in nature. Mostly, they are detected incidentally. At times, they may attain a huge size and may present with large abdominal lump. In our case, a 55-year-old man had a left-sided large idiopathic retroperitoneal cyst, for which complete curative excision was performed.
Bladder leiomyoma Jose Eduardo Mendes, Ana Vaz Ferreira, Sara Alcobia Coelho, Carolina Gil
Urology Annals 2017 9(3):275-277
Leiomyomas of the bladder constitute <0.5% of all bladder tumors, with about 250 cases reported. Most patients present with urinary frequency or obstructive urinary symptoms. There are rare cases with other presentations, such as dyspareunia. We report a 22-year-old female who presented with complaints of pelvic discomfort, dysuria, and dyspareunia. Imaging and cystoscopy showed a protruding bladder lesion, which was excised through a transurethral resection. The pathologic diagnosis was bladder leiomyoma. Although being a benign condition, they can cause several different symptoms and should be early diagnosed and treated.
Prostate adenocarcinoma, the most common cancer in males in the United States, is often diagnosed in the nonmetastatic setting. The prognosis with metastatic prostate cancer is less favorable, though treatment options are typically effective in controlling the disease for an extended period. Hormonal therapy is the backbone to the management of prostate cancer metastases, decreasing the level of the prostate-specific antigen and reducing the patient's cancer-related symptoms. Pulmonary metastases, a relatively uncommon initial site of disease involvement, are expected to respond in a similar fashion to hormonal therapy as other organ or bone involvement. This report describes a patient with a newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer and a dramatic mixed response to hormonal therapy. This case should remind clinicians that pulmonary disease from prostate cancer may be an early metastatic finding, and can potentially progress even in the setting of an otherwise appropriate response to treatment.
Kidney is one of the most common sites for the cyst formation in the body, and the management of simple cysts is required entirely for its symptoms and complications. Surgical decortication is an established treatment for a large and symptomatic simple renal cyst. On the other hand, hydatid cysts of the kidney are usually multiloculated complex or calcified cysts and are quite rare.Their surgical treatment also differs and requires complete excision with pericystectomy or partial/complete nephrectomy depending upon residual functional parenchyma, using extreme caution to avoid spillage, recurrence or development of severe anaphylactic shock.A simple cyst harboring a hydatid cyst is highly uncommon and quite dangerous; as if not diagnosed preoperatively, it can create huge trouble for both the patient and the operating surgeon which happened in the present case.
Urinary bladder lymphomas are rare lesions which may be primary bladder lymphomas or part of systemic lymphoma with bladder involvement. We report a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in a 73-year-old female who presented with bladder tumor which on evaluation revealed NHL with extensive systemic involvement. The management of such an advanced case is discussed here with literature review.
Retroperitoneal extrarenal angiomyolipoma (RERAML) are rare and close mimickers of retroperitoneal liposarcoma on both imaging and histopathology. However, imaging findings including heterogeneity, hyperdensity on unenhanced computed tomography, intralesional hemorrhage, absence of calcifications, low signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and dilated intratumoral vessels can lead to the diagnosis of RERAML. Diagnosis of RERAML can avoid unnecessary surgery since conservative medical management with continued surveillance has been proven to be effective for RERAML whereas surgical resection is the treatment for liposarcoma. Imaging and laboratory follow-up for at least 5 years has been recommended in patients who underwent surgical resection of angiomyolipoma (AML). We present a case of RERAML in an asymptomatic patient whose AML recurred in the surgical bed 8 years after an ipsilateral nephrectomy for renal AML.
Spontaneous rupture of the urinary collecting system with extravasation of the urine is a very rare condition. This situation is commonly associated with an obstructing urinary stone. Herein, we report a case of an 86-year-old patient who has admitted to the emergency service with left flank pain continuing for 7 days and pain has exacerbated in the past 24 h. The patient had nausea, vomiting, and tenderness on the left side of the abdomen and left flank region. The patient was diagnosed with an 8 mm left kidney stone a month ago, and hydration and oral analgesics were recommended to the patient. Spontaneous rupture of the renal pelvis and urinary extravasation were detected by contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan. Double-J ureteral stent was placed to control symptoms and eliminate extravasation. In this paper, diagnosis and treatment options for spontaneous renal pelvis rupture are discussed.
Testicular epidermoid cysts are a rare cause of testicular pathology. No cases of recurrence or metastasis have been reported in the literature. As a result, inguinal partial orchiectomy with frozen section has recently become standard treatment. A 43-year-old male presented with right testicular discomfort and the presence of mass. Right inguinal partial orchiectomy with frozen section was performed, and the right testicle was preserved. The final pathology report confirmed the diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. The importance of accurate diagnosis of this benign lesion is crucial for the prevention of unnecessary radical orchiectomy.
An ectopic kidney is a common developmental anomaly of the urinary system. However, the thoracic kidney (TK) is the rarest state form of an aberrant kidney. The aim of this case report is defining the symptoms in TK diagnosis and constructing a treatment model will promote the best outcomes. These patients come to the physician with the various symptoms, and they could be diagnosed incidentally. In our case, we describe 40 years female patient with severe respiratory problems and upper back pain. In the pulmonary clinic, suspected mass was diagnosed with chest X-ray, and computerized tomography detected nontraumatic nonhernia associated, a truly ectopic TK. Moreover, the thoracic surgeon and urologist team decided to exploration and reconstructed the right ectopic kidney. The 1st month of the control of patient symptoms was disappeared. Overall, TK should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of thoracic tumors. Surgical exploration and reconstruction should be thought in patients who have severe respiratory symptoms.
Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumors that are seen either sporadically or in patients of neurofibromatosis. This tumor is common in head, neck, and extremities. Penis is a rare site for this tumor. To the very best of our knowledge, <34 cases of penile schwannoma have been reported in literature till now, but none had presented as scrotal mass. Here, we report a case of penile schwannoma in a 16-year-old male boy who presented in our outpatient department with a slowly growing scrotal mass. Our patient did not have any other feature of neurofibromatosis. The patient after investigation underwent surgical excision and had no recurrence on follow-up of 5 years.
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