Semen AMACR protein as a novel method for detecting prostate cancer Alpha methylacyl A coenzyme racemase (AMACR) has shown to be an excellent immunohistological biomarker for prostate cancer (CaP). Given the connection between prostate and urethra, we hypothesized that semen ejaculate would be an ideal specimen for detection of CaP specific biomarkers, such as AMACR. This study explores the detection of semen AMACR protein in men with and without CaP.
Prostate cancer in transgender women As society at large begins to better recognize and understand gender dysphoria and the social and psychological issues surrounding transgender patients, we anticipate that more transgender individuals will feel comfortable in seeking urologic care. Urologists need to be better educated about social, behavioral, physiological, and anatomical issues that face transgender patients. Though estimation is difficult, attempts have been made to quantify the number of transgender persons currently in the United States.
A urinary microRNA (miR) signature for diagnosis of bladder cancer Bladder cancer is the ninth most common malignancy worldwide, with an estimated 429,000 new cases diagnosed annually. At the time of diagnosis, the majority of tumors are well differentiated and do not invade the bladder's detrusor muscle, so called low-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (LGNMIBC). Despite aggressive treatment by transurethral resection and intravesical instillations, LGNMIBC recurs in approximately 50% of patients. However, these tumors rarely progress to a higher grade or stage and have therefore an excellent prognosis .
Zonal mapping of sentinel lymph nodes in penile cancer patients using fused SPECT/CT imaging and lymphoscintigraphy Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis is rare with an incidence of 0.3 to 1.6 new cases per 100,000 males per year in Western Europe and North America [1,2]. Anatomical and observational studies have demonstrated that the lymphatic drainage from the penis initially travels to the superficial inguinal lymph nodes followed by the deep inguinal lymph nodes before spreading to the pelvic lymph nodes [3,4]. Previous studies have also shown that the most important prognostic indicator in patients diagnosed with penile cancer is the presence of metastatic inguinal lymph node disease [5,6].
Current controversies and developments on the role of lymphadenectomy for penile cancer Penile squamous cell carcinoma is a rare cancer in men. The main prognosticators of survival for penile cancer patients remain the presence and the extent of lymph node metastasis. While radical inguinal lymphadenectomy has been the cornerstone of regional lymph node management for many years, it is still associated with significant morbidity and psychological distress. Recent developments in penile squamous cell carcinoma management have been met with some controversy in the urologic oncology community.
Focal therapy in localised prostate cancer: Real-world urological perspective explored in a cross-sectional European survey Modern surgical oncology is increasingly moving towards tissue-preserving strategies over radical approaches in the vast majority of malignancies, provided that such approaches are technically feasible and oncologically effective [1–4]. Whilst there is some interest in such a concept for prostate cancer (PCa), the prostate does still remain the last solid organ for which whole-gland treatments are carried out as standard of care. It is indeed an exception to treat in the same manner men harbouring measurable disease ranging from high volume low-risk to high-risk disease.
Prediction of acute kidney injury after radical cystectomy and urinary diversion The recent article by Furrer et al.  assessing theincidence and perioperative risk factors of early postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in 912 patientsundergoing radical cystectomy and urinary diversion was of great interest to us. By multiple logistic regression analysis, they showed that prolonged duration of surgery (>400 minutes) was a risk factor identified for postoperative AKI and further independent predictors of postoperative AKI were male sex, alow preoperative plasma creatinine, obesity, and intraoperative blood loss.
Molecular carcinogenesis in equine penile cancer: A potential animal model for human penile cancer Human penile cancer is a rare disease in developed countries with an incidence rate of around 1 per 100,000 . In contrast, it is more common in developing countries accounting for up to 10% to 17% of cancer in males with an incidence that reaches 4 per 100,000 [1,2]. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the predominant cancer type and accounts for over 95% of penile cancer cases [3–5]. The main treatment for advanced tumors is phalectomy and, when inguinal lymph node metastasis is present, bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy is also performed.
Combining anticancer drugs with osteoprotective agents in prostate cancer—A contemporary update Treatment of metastatic hormone-sensitive (mHSPC) and castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is a multimodal and interdisciplinary process that frequently affects an elderly and frail population. In these patients, changes in bone metabolism can imply a significant impact on all-cause morbidity as well as cancer-related outcomes. Uniquely, these changes can rely on metastatic bone disease itself, but also on treatment-related changes in bone mineral density that are inherent to long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).
Malignant testicular germ cell tumors in children and adolescents: The AIEOP (Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica) protocol Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are rare in children, and histologically and genetically similar to extragonadal tumors , whereas in adolescents they reveal genetic and clinical patterns similar to the disease in adults. These differences have led to TGCT being classified as type I for children with yolk sac tumor (YST) and/or teratoma (T) or type II for adolescents and young men with other, pure or mixed, sub entities . In a previous Italian study , 36 TGCT patients (≤16 years old) underwent surgery, with or without radiotherapy and carboplatin-based chemotherapy (CT).
The impact of age at the time of radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer on the development of second primary malignancies Radical prostatectomy (RP) and radiotherapy (RT) represent the main treatment modalities for localized prostate cancer (CaP) . RT is also used in the adjuvant setting for patients with pT3 CaP or positive surgical margins, and as salvage treatment for biochemical failure after RP. As treatments become more effective, the increase in survivorship has led to the observation of second primary malignancies (SPMs) in cancer survivors. Radiation is believed to contribute to development of SPMs, and studies have shown relationships between radiation, urothelial dysplasia, and DNA damage [2,3].
Prostate cancer tissues with positive TMPRSS2-ERG-gene-fusion status may display enhanced nerve density Innervation of prostate cancer (CaP) tissue favors tumor progression and metastasis but the regulation of innervation in CaP is unclear. The oncogenic transcription factor ERG is commonly induced by a typical TMPRSS2-ERG (TE) gene fusion in CaP and may affect innervation. Here, we analyzed whether nerve density of CaP tissue is related to TE status or perineural infiltration status of CaP tissue. In parallel, we measured several members of the neuropilin/plexin/semaphorin family (NRP, PLXN, and SEMA) as possible targets mediating innervation.
Robotic-assisted vs. open radical prostatectomy: A machine learning framework for intelligent analysis of patient-reported outcomes from online cancer support groups Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is being increasingly utilised in treatment of prostate cancer (CaP). In addition to the minimally invasive nature, some of the reported perioperative advantages of RARP include lower surgical margin rate for intermediate-risk disease and high-risk disease, lower blood loss, lower risk of blood transfusions, and shorter hospital stays [1–7]. However, quality of life (QOL) in the longer term is more contentious. Clinical trials conducted in high volume centres depend on willing participants filling out questionnaires on a long-term basis in a ‘trial setting’ and thereby likely to be impacted by a variety of follow-up biases and may not accurately capture ‘real-life’ issues experienced by patients.
Immediate intravesical chemotherapy for low-grade bladder tumors in California: An underutilized practice and its impact on recurrence The delivery of quality care in cancer in the United States has been described as being in a state of crisis , while the cost of health care continues to grow to unsustainable levels . Furthermore, the burden of bladder cancer in the United States is significant, with over 79,030 new cases estimated in 2017, and it remains the most prevalent malignancy of the urinary system with an estimated prevalence in the United States of 696,440 in 2014 . The majority of incident cases represent nonmuscle invasive and low-grade disease.
Reported rates of clostridium difficile following radical cystectomy in national datasets compared to individual institutions The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that there were approximately 453,000 cases and 30,000 deaths caused by Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in 2011, making it the most common healthcare acquired infection . Rates of CDI in US hospitals range from 3.8 to 9.5 cases per 10,000 patient days . Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive anaerobic organism that typically colonizes the gut asymptomatically. Symptoms may manifest if the microenvironment is disrupted, which is usually due to antibiotic exposure, but may also be due to intestinal surgery.
Risk prediction models for cancer-specific survival following cytoreductive nephrectomy in the contemporary era Level 1 evidence supports a survival benefit to cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) followed by cytokine therapy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) [1–3]. Although comparable randomized data do not exist for patients treated with targeted therapies, several retrospective studies suggest a similar survival benefit for CN [4–6]. However, it is unclear whether selection criteria and treatment sequencing paradigms developed during the immunotherapy era are applicable to patients treated within the contemporary targeted therapy era.
Abbreviated CT protocol for postoperative surveillance of renal cancer The current protocols for surveillance following surgery for localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) stratify patients according to risk groups [1–4]. Periodic computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest and abdomen are recommended according to risk groups with some variations between the different guidelines. Given that CT is a very sensitive tool for detection of early and potentially curable metastasis and local recurrence [5–8], over the evolution of successive guideline recommendations more and more CT studies have been added to the protocols .
tRNA-halves are prognostic biomarkers for patients with prostate cancer Prostate cancer (CaP) is the second most common malignancy in men . The diagnosis is based on digital rectal examination, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate biopsy, and imaging modalities. Despite the efforts for accurate diagnosis, a high percentage of men diagnosed with CaP is overtreated with radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy [2,3]. On the other hand, a subset of patients with aggressive carcinoma faces the risk of CaP progression despite of treatment. Therefore, a biomarker allowing the identification of aggressive and indolent disease is required in order to improve the management of patients with CaP.
miR-301a expression: Diagnostic and prognostic marker for prostate cancer Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common malignancy in males in the United States with an estimated 164,690 new cases in 2018 by American Cancer Society. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening has led to an increase in the detection of early stage CaP. As a diagnostic test (PSA is a screening test), PSA has poor specificity, which leads to the over-diagnosis and over-treatment of CaP. Patients with low-risk or indolent tumors are often subjected to treatments that are not without complications.
The Whitmore aphorism Willet F. Whitmore Jr. served as the chief of urology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center from 1951 to 1984. In his New York Times obituary, he is aptly referred to as, "the dean of urologic oncology” . He had a major impact on the practice of urologic oncology, particularly prostate cancer. His influence on the field extended beyond his own lifetime, as he trained many of the next generation of urologic oncology leaders.
Physician attitudes about genetic testing for localized prostate cancer: A national survey of radiation oncologists and urologists Prostate cancer is a highly prevalent male malignancy with approximately 180,000 diagnosed and 30,000 dying each year in the United States . Due to the indolent natural history of prostate cancer, greater emphasis is now placed on shared decision-making and active surveillance to address concerns about overtreatment . Effective treatment decision-making for localized prostate cancer therefore requires accurate predictive tools to best quantify clinical aggressiveness and risk of cancer-related morbidity and mortality at the time of diagnosis [3,4].
Primary care perspective and implementation of a multidisciplinary, institutional prostate cancer screening algorithm embedded in the electronic health record Recognizing historical widespread national prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening programs, subsequent early prostate cancer (CaP) detection and resulting stage migration, the CaP-specific mortality rate decreased by 40% during the past three decades [1,2]. Despite this great achievement, there are still many controversies regarding the benefits/harms of CaP screening. While the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recently changed their recommendation against routine screening of all men at all ages (Grade D) to individualized patient–physician decision-making for men aged 55 to 69 years (Grade C) , other steering committees such as the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines  or the American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines , as well as several others, propose different CaP screening recommendations among various age groups after patient-centered communication and shared decision-making.
Receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK)-mediated induction of metastatic spread and association with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma According to histological criteria, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can be classified into 3 major subtypes: clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), papillary RCC, and chromophobe RCC . The most frequent subtype is ccRCC, accounting for approximately 75% of all RCC cases . Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is a chemo- and irradiation-resistant tumor with a historical median overall survival (OS) of RCC patients of approximately 10 months . Despite the recent success of new treatment strategies with targeted therapies and specific immunotherapies in the treatment of mRCC, many tumors are resistant to current standard of care agents and only a few patients can be durably cured with standard of care therapies [3–5].
Lymph node yield as a predictor of overall survival following inguinal lymphadenectomy for penile cancer Penile cancer is rare in the United States (US) with an incidence of 0.58/100,000 . The majority of cases are squamous cell carcinoma. Management of penile squamous cell carcinoma (pSCC) is based on local invasiveness of the tumor, tumor grade, and staging of regional (inguinal and pelvic) lymph nodes (LNs) . Involvement of the regional LNs is an adverse pathological finding and has been demonstrated to influence cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) . Inguinal lymphadenectomy (ILND) is, therefore, an important part of the treatment algorithm for clinically node positive disease (cN+) .
Predicting the tumorigenic phenotype of human bladder cancer cells by combining with fetal rat mesenchyme Most bladder cancers are urothelial carcinomas. Roughly 75% of patients have nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and the remainder have muscle invasive or metastatic disease . For all stages, the 5-year relative survival is around 70% to 80% . The rate of recurrence in NMIBC ranges from 50% to 90%. In addition, 10% to 30% of NMIBC patients progress to muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) requiring radical surgery . In NMIBC patients after first transurethral resection, identification of the key predictors of progression should improve overall survival by supporting the use of aggressive treatment in short-term follow-up.
Health-related quality of life among elderly Americans diagnosed with upper tract urothelial carcinoma Outcomes of cancer research are usually described in relation to cancer recurrence, progression, and/or patient survival. These outcomes are essential; however, they may not capture the full impact of cancer on patient's functioning and social well being, especially in elderly patients . Elderly cancer patients are usually under-represented in clinical trials . There are growing reports that in a significant proportion of the elderly cancer population, maintaining an adequate quality of life is more important than length of life .
Prognostic value of PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma Several molecular targeted agents have been approved since 2008 for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in Japan and include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway inhibitors and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. These therapeutic agents have prolonged the survival of patients with RCC. However, most patients treated with molecular targeted agents will ultimately acquire resistance to these agents, resulting in disease progression. Many potential prognostic and predictive molecular biomarkers have now been identified in RCC, although none has yet entered clinical practice .
The association between facility case volume and overall survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the targeted therapy era Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has an estimated 63,990 new cases and 14,400 deaths in 2017 . While the RCC survival rate had been traditionally poor, the 5-year survival rate had increased from 57% in 1987 to 1989 to 74% in 2006 to 2012 . This improvement is likely due to 2 main factors: first is the diffuse use of imaging studies which resulted in increased detection of early-stage disease [2,3]; the other is the targeted therapy (TT) era for advanced RCC beginning at the end of 2005 with 7 antiangiogenic drugs and 2 mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors approved from 2005 to 2016 by the Food and Drug Administration .
Dietary patterns and health-related quality of life in bladder cancer survivors Society and medicine are placing an increasing emphasis on cancer survivorship . As the population continues to age and cancer treatment evolves, the number of cancer survivors is expected to increase. Greater numbers will then be faced with the physical and psychosocial challenges of recovering from cancer and its treatment [2,3]. This population is already known to have elevated risks of mortality and chronic health conditions . Thus, it is important to align our goals of increased overall and cancer-specific survival with concomitant efforts to improve and optimize quality of life.
Transketolase like 1 (TKTL1) expression alterations in prostate cancer tumorigenesis Prostate cancer (CaP) is a heterogeneous disease with high variability in regards to clinical outcome and therapeutic response. While some men will develop an indolent CaP not affecting life expectancy, others might die of CaP. Thus, the process of screening and diagnosing, as well as the therapeutic options and monitoring can be difficult for the urologist—to distinguish between lethal and indolent CaP still remains a challenge.
Mechanisms and funding opportunities in genitourinary cancer clinical research Progress in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of genitourinary cancers is dependent on well-conducted clinical trials. The complexity and cost of clinical research continues to escalate, and success is dependent on adequate funding. Opportunities to fund such research include federal, industry, and private sources. The mechanisms whereby larger trials are conducted include contract research organizations, publically- and privately funded consortia, and the National Clinical Trials Network of the National Cancer Institute.
Current controversies on the role of lymphadenectomy for bladder cancer Significant evidence exists regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic roles of pelvic lymph node dissection at the time of radical cystectomy for patients with bladder cancer. Despite this, lymphadenectomy for bladder cancer is still underutilized and even where performed, controversies exist in regard to what defines an adequate dissection and whether or not the indications for lymphadenectomy have changed now that we are firmly entrenched in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy era. A comprehensive literature review was performed to touch on these important issues and highlight future directions and current trials that will soon provide more clarity for surgeons and patients dealing with bladder cancer.
Re: “Current surgical standards of care in Wilms tumor” The authors have published a valuable article that outlines the current status of surgical care in Wilms tumor, highlighting key technical points as well as addressing areas of controversy and future research directions. One point to clarify for the readership :
Lifestyle and nutritional modifiable factors in the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer Bladder cancer is one of the top 5 most common cancers diagnosed in the U.S. It is also one of the most expensive cancers to treat through the life course given its high rate of recurrence. While cigarette smoking and occupational exposures have been firmly established as risk factors, it is less certain whether modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity play roles in bladder cancer etiology and prognosis. This literature review based on a PubMed search summarizes the research to date on key dietary factors, types of physical activity, and smoking in relation to bladder cancer incidence, and discusses the potential public health implications for formalized smoking cessation programs among recently diagnosed patients.
Role of lymph node dissection in renal cell cancer Lymph node metastasis in renal cell cancer (RCC) portends an extremely poor prognosis. Despite proven staging benefit, the therapeutic value of lymph node dissection in RCC remains questionable. The only prospective randomized trial examining its role failed to show any benefit. However, subsequent retrospective publications have attempted to identify high-risk cohorts and clinical scenarios where removal of nodes may improve survival. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review looking at the role of lymph node dissection in RCC if any, the ideal extent of dissection, and also tools a clinician could employ to identify those who would most likely benefit from this exercise.
Key design and analysis principles for quality of life and patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials Advances in early detection and therapy have increased the number of prostate cancer survivors, leading to a greater emphasis on examining patient-reported outcomes (PROs). PROs augment clinical outcomes, providing a more comprehensive assessment of the patient experience, including symptoms and quality of life, that may impact the overall evaluation of new therapies. The successful incorporation of PROs into clinical trials requires adherence to key design and analysis principles. We present these principles and argue that adherence to these principles is vital to ensure valid interpretation of clinical trial findings, identify meaningful differences among investigational strategies, and better translate clinical trial results to diverse stakeholders.
Contribution of bladder cancer pathology assessment in planning clinical trials Bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease that demonstrates a wide spectrum of histologic features. The modern classification of bladder cancer is largely based on pathologic analysis, which assesses tumor grade, stage, type, size, and other features that are essential for understanding the biological behavior of bladder cancer. Bladder cancers with similar histologic features are likely to show comparable responses to a new therapeutic agent in clinical trial. Furthermore, pathologic analysis also evaluates the quality of tissue samples in clinical trial to ensure the integrity of various molecular tests.
Optimizing androgen deprivation therapy with radiation therapy for aggressive localized and locally advanced prostate cancer Radiation therapy with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has historically been one of the mainstays of treatment for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer. The benefit of ADT likely derives from both enhancing local control and inhibiting micrometastatic disease. While level 1 evidence has demonstrated the benefits of 4–6 months of ADT for all men with intermediate-risk disease, further stratification of intermediate-risk prostate cancer into favorable and unfavorable subgroups indicates that ADT may not be necessary for favorable intermediate-risk disease but likely still provides a survival advantage for unfavorable intermediate-risk disease, even in the dose escalation era.
A novel preoperative model to predict 90-day surgical mortality in patients considered for renal cell carcinoma surgery Kidney cancer is the 8th leading cancer diagnosis in the United States with an estimated 63,990 of new cases resulting in 14,400 deaths based on 2016 data . In contrast to many of the other most commonly diagnosed malignancies, the incidence of kidney cancer has risen over the last few decades in men and women of every racial and ethnic group . The rise in incidence of kidney cancer has coincided with a downward drift stage migration likely secondary to the more frequent diagnosis of small, incidental renal masses on cross-sectional imaging [3–6].
Documento sin título
Aviso para pacientes:
Esta página contiene información urológica dirigida a profesionales de la sanidad.
Si tiene algún problema relacionado con esta patología,
consulte con su urólogo o médico de familia.
Si desea información diseñada para pacientes y público general. puede visitar:
Portal de Información Urológica para Pacientes